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Report 1 Draft for EUPC By Anna Schmidt

International Permaculture Research Project

Analysis of the First International Permaculture Research Survey: Who’s doing what?

The International Permaculture Research Project has the aim to connect permaculture researchers from the academic and practical sphere. It so far consists of a series of surveys, the analysis of the first one being subject of this report. The overall goal is to support research collaboration in becoming more effective and vibrant, thereby shifting Permaculture toward broader acceptance in the public and academic sphere.

A project developed by the Permaculture Association




The idea for the project itself was developed in a joint effort of Permaculture Association members and its research advisory board. It’s objective is to reach out to permaculture researchers all over the world, in order to eventually develop a well organised and vibrant network of academics and practitioners, which a. enables researchers to connect and share results, b. makes it easy for researchers to support each other and collaborate with research projects and c. enables permaculture research to become more organised and consequently more recognised in the public sphere, by governance and academia.

In order to achieve this goal, a series of surveys, of which the first two already exist, are developed:

Survey 1: Who is doing what?
Survey 2: What research is wanted?
Survey 3: How do researchers learn and communicate?
Survey 4: What do researchers think about a potential research protocol/ platform?

The aim of the first survey is to gain an overview of 1. Who is out there? 2. Where are they situated? 3. What research are they conducting? and 4. What do they need in order to pursue their research?

After the launch of the first survey in May, we received a lot of feedback fairly quickly. Within six weeks, more than 200 people had responded to the survey. We received tremendous support in our effort to translate the survey into different languages, in order to make it accessible to as many people as possible, and as international and representative as possible. After our first news update on the progress of the survey, participants contacted us and translated the survey free of charge. As a result, the survey is now available in 9 languages!

Even though an analysis of the results has been carried out, the survey will continue to stay open for people to participate. If you know someone who might be interested to join our network, please put us in touch!
Indeed, a lot of promotion work is to be done in order to create a broad, international awareness of the project. One of the main challenges in regard to this is to promote the survey in different countries and networks, and to set up a reliable, logistical system that enables good communication and an efficient management and analysis of data.

We truly hope that this first overview of the results that came together will inspire people and motivate you to take part and play an active role in developing this project in order for it to strive and succeed in becoming a well- functioning, established and recognised platform for permaculture related research.

Many thanks go out to all the participants and people who contributed to developing the project up to this point. We hope you enjoy reading this report!


CHAPTER 1: Participants

Responses and distribution

Added all language versions together, we received a total number of 262 responses to survey 11. As Figure 1.1 demonstrates, the language versions of survey one have been answered very unequally in terms of numbers of responses. This is partly to do with their launch date: The English version was launched in May, the French, German, Spanish and Italian version end of June and the Chinese, Swahili and Portuguese versions only end July 2012. However, also varying levels of connectivity and access to networks used by speakers of the languages in question have an influence. Although we have been working within particularly French and German speaking networks, there is a lot of work in terms of building connections to other networks and to increase communication with non- English speaking permaculture researchers.

1 Figures based on data received up to 24/07/2012

Figure 1.1: Existing language versions and respective number of participants

We are aware that being based in the UK, our network and connections are mainly English speaking. Being sensitive of that fact, we will do our best to develop this project as open and diverse as possible in terms of language. This of course is not a job for the Permaculture Association alone, but requires co-operation between networks, institutes and individuals. At the end of the day, this project is aimed to be a joint initiative of different players from different countries, cultures and backgrounds, working in a multi- lingual way.

In order for the project to receive the attention it deserves here at our Association, we have decided to recruit an intern, to start in October 2012, whose specific task it will be to work on the development, promotion of and collaboration for this project.


A total number of 51 countries are represented by our survey participants, which we think is a great success!


Figure 1.2: Countries represented followed by respective number of participants.

Participants per continent

Figure 1.3: Participants per continent (%)

As figure 1.3 demonstrates, over 53% of participants represented are from Europe, 23% from Northern America, which means that South America (7%), Oceania (6%), Africa (7%) and Asia (7%) are under- represented. Once again, this is mainly to do with our allocation and already existing networks and connections in place. This once again makes me refer back to the importance of active collaboration on this endeavour. Ideally, we would have regional coordinators, who can access networks, translate and distribute and feed information back and forth.

Organisations, projects and institutions

A list of 410 organisations, projects and institutions that survey participants are involved with came together (see Appendix 1). Amongst them are over 30 universities, and 30 institutes, 24 networks and 10 associations involved with permaculture research in various countries.

Instead of just providing an alphabetical list, our future vision is to develop a better search tool that allows you to find what you specifically are looking for, and provides you with information on the project and people involved. If you feel you have some skills and resources to contribute to the development of such a system, please get in touch. Also, if you want more specific information on who is involved with a certain organisation, institution or project, please write an email to, and we will provide you with the information you need.

CHAPTER 2: Your Research

A vast pool of research questions, areas and disciplines has come together through the survey. Questions are very different in their ambition, some very practical and some very academic. Figure 2.1 demonstrates the diversity of participants’ areas of work in that respect: 164 participants are practical researchers and 75 work in the academic sphere, of which 56 do practical research in addition to their academic work.


Participants about their occupation:

“I am working with George Mason University, Virginia, USA, to establish permaculture research support.”

“I love to make my permaculture model a learning tool for people in Southern Africa”

“I'm a former academic, now full time farmer/grower”

“I am a practitioner with hopes of making it more a part of my academic job.”

“I’m an undergrad student studying permaculture and transferring to UC Davis for masters in International Agricultural Development.”

“My research and activities are related, but not specifically tied into permaculture. It is more of a hobby and goal for the future”

“I have 16 years of experience in organic gardening and testing methods in the area of agroforestry […].”
Academics and practitioners

Figure 2.1: Numbers of academics, practitioners and both

Analysing the answers, we found that people are looking for different things and different kinds of collaboration. Some are academics wishing to connect and collaborate with other academics, some academics wishing to collaborate with practitioners on rather quantitative, numerical research, some are practitioners wanting to collaborate with other on research projects, poly- culture trials, or wanting to get advice from the academic world on various issues. Resources that people need and have to offer seem to have a great possibility to match. A useful tool for a future website might thus be a space where people can request and offer resources such as training, land, specific research on issues and more.

Areas of research

We created a list of research questions that came together as a result of researchers answering the survey (see Appendix 2).Sorting questions into categories or summarising them has proven to be a difficult task, as there is a real danger in simplifying and boxing issues. In addition to differences between academic and practical approaches, we found that Permaculture related research is marked by a highly interdisciplinary character, covering a vast number of issues.

Even though we decided to find a few headlines to give the number of questions some sort of order, I would like to encourage all readers to not pay too much attention to these, as questions could be sorted in a completely different way, and some of them would certainly deserve their own category. However, we hope the way of “ordering” things a little bit serves the purpose of giving readers a rough overview of what is covered.

We furthermore decided to not provide names or any further information in relation to the questions, as this would probably be beyond the capacity of this report. However, we strongly encourage you to contact us for more information on topics, questions, countries or researchers of your interest. Once a platform in form of website is established, you will be able to get in touch with each other directly. Until then, please contact for any further information.

Thinking about future ways of managing data and developing appropriate search tools, one approach could be the development of a search engine incorporated into a potential website, which enables researchers to search for keywords and to specify, whether they are looking for academic, practical or both entries.

CHAPTER 3: Access

What would help you with your research?

Analysing the question “What would help you with your research?” we found that many people are looking for similar kinds of support. Most people indeed are looking for knowledge exchange, for example in form of a research peer group (43) and access to research in form of journals, books (22), literature reviews or openly accessible databases (10). 21 participants stated that access to more land and skilled permaculture practitioners would help them with their research, and methods training would be appreciated by 23 participants. 14 people would find a research guidebook helpful. Also time (7), funding (10) and qualified staff (5) are resources needed.

A selection of quotes on the question “What would help you with your research?”

“All of the above! But firstly common methods of data capture so that results can be compared with others' would be useful.”

“Training would be great , or maybe just is an experienced permaculturalist, and someone who is experienced in business plan writing.”

“A research peer group would be excellent. Also, a comprehensive bibliography of permaculture research would be great.”

“Information exchange with people involved in similar activities.”

Figure 3.1: A total of 144 participants have answered this question. Answers in %

The answers received are very encouraging when looking at our project, as its main purpose is to connect people and the research they are doing - which is what the majority of people stated as a major resource that would help them to develop more efficient research.

Barriers to conducting research

The main barriers to conducting research named by participants are funding, time, collaboration, skilled labour, low acceptance of permaculture as a research discipline and lack of knowledge.

However, people also named other reasons, such as distance, no access to land, training and assistance, language barriers, access to institutions and internet access.

Figure 2.3: Total number of answers: 144. Answer choices by participants in %

Here a few quoted by participants on the question:


“A barrier for my research is still the lack of a clear mapping of the permaculture design method as well as a mapping of the academic research method in order to find similarities (common ground) and then see what one can bring to the other.”

“A general lack of knowledge about permaculture makes it difficult to access funding from mainstream sources. It also makes it difficult to attract interdisciplinary collaborators. At the same time, a general (and probably justified) wariness of the academy among many permaculture practitioners can be an obstacle to academic-community collaborations. “

“It would be really helpful to know other people's research results on permaculture. Currently I'm constrained by how much time I have to conduct research. I have not faced major barriers to conducting research though since I am doing this as a part of my PhD program, received funding to do the research, and am supported by two organizations working on permaculture in Malawi.”

“There is very little published /peer reviewed about permaculture.”

“Usually outside any formal funding frameworks, so special efforts are needed to find alternative sources of support. Permaculture needs higher profile, therefore a focused effort, with a much clearer research programme.”

“Our work on Permaculture is not really taken seriously in Switzerland. Often, there is a lack of professionalism.”

Barriers to accessing other people’s research

Figure 3.3: 120 people responded to this question. Answers in %

CHAPTER 4: Participant’s ideas and comments

How do you think this survey could be improved?

We got a lot of positive feedback, and also a lot of new input and suggestions. Some of them here:

"Research is such an open topic. Asking some leading questions on particular areas of research might have elicited more specific response.”

“As a lot of people are doing research without their own web site and what could be called professional ways of publication and presentation.”

“Ask if people are willing to be part of research teams! Reveal which research topics are currently being explored by participants in this project”

“Ask what research means for you, in order to account for the diversity of approaches that people with diverse backgrounds may have to research.”

“Good questions. I need to see the results - what the other people wrote.”

“I am curious to learn more about the diversity of people in the field of permaculture”

“It would be great to have all information transparent and available in an openly accessible place, like for example the Chaordic institute, Gaia university as a transnational organisation of the permaculture global database for example.”

“Maybe ask: What are the questions you would like to research? Could do some linking up of people with similar interests...”

“You could have asked what I had to offer e.g. 18 acres of a permaculture trial site”

“Questions regarding permaculture and higher education would have been nice.”

“The first page, with name of project and website, may look at bit formal to some people like me, who just do things individually on a very small scale.”

“I would be especially interested in a list that discussed ways to do pc outreach through organizations that function effectively.”

“Thanks for doing this! I hope this will help to connect permaculture researchers.”

We would like to thank all participants for their input and will try to work on the issues raised in the future. Due to the great number of participants and little resources we are not able to process and answer all questions personally. However, in case you have a request on specific information or suggestion that is important to you, we would appreciate if you email us!


To conclude, we would like to express our satisfaction and gratitude for all answers we received. We received over 250 responses from over 50 countries, and gathered a list of over 400 projects, institutions and organisations, of which over 30 are Universities. A vast number of research questions have come together, revealing the inter-disciplinary and broad character of permaculture research. Thanks to the engagement of volunteers, the survey is accessible in 9 languages!

We hope that also you are happy with the results presented to you, and that this report gave you a fair overview of the current state of this project . In case there are any questions left open, please do not hesitate and write us in order to enquire the information you are looking for.

Although participation and results are encouraging, we also would like to point out the areas of work that need to be addressed.

1) Establishing networks of co-operation with institutes, projects, individuals
2) Establishing reliable systems of translation in order to analyse and feedback data. Ideally a person responsible for regions/ languages.
3) Establishing a plan for a platform/ website. This requires us to collaborate with web designers/ qualified IT people





If you feel that you can help with any of these following, or know someone who can, please contact us. Also, if you have any proposals, ideas or concerns regarding the strategy for developing an international permaculture research platform/ database, please get in touch.

Traditional Chinese:
Simplified Chinese:

Survey 2: What research is wanted?


Useful contact details

Anna Schmidt (international coordinator)

Chris Wartenburg - Brown(research coordinator)

Andy Goldring (CEO) -


The Permaculture Association
Hollybush Conservation Centre
Broad Lane Kirkstall
West Yorkshire


Phone: +44 (0) 845 458 1805
From abroad: +44 (0) 113 230 74 61
Fax: +44 (0) 845 458 1092



Appendix 1: List of projects





Aberystwyth University

Academia Danubiana

ACOS Nepal (Agriculture Concern Society Nepal)


Alan Enzo, Ph.D., M.B.A.

Alaska Permaculture Guild

AlaskanEcoEscape Permaculture Center

Allmende e.V.

American Anthropological Association

American Society of Permaculture

American University

Anglican Diocese of Upper Shire

APAA Congo


Apios Institute for Regenerative Perennial Ag.

AppleSeed Permaculture LLC

Aranya Agricultural Alternatives

Arkansas Tech University

Artemis Plants & Gardens


Association Paysanne pour l'Autosuffisance Alimentaire

Athens Permaculture


Atlantic Energy






Bee Child


Better World Cameroon

Bindura University of Science Education

Biochar Initiative

Biomimicry Europa

Bishops Castle Community Land Trust


Bloomington Permaculture


Boulder Permaculture Guild


Brin de Paille, France

Bristol Community Land Trust

Bristol Food Network

Bristol Permaculture Group

British Ecological Society (Agroecology group)


Büro für landbauliche und soziale Permakultur

Büro Weichen stellen, Trubschachen



California State University at Stanlislaus

Campaign For Real Farming

Carleton University Department of Geography and Environmental Studies

Casa Hogar de Niños San Pedro Pescador

Cascadia Permaculture Institute


CCIAM research Institute

CELL Centre for Ecological Learning Luxembourg

Cense Equi Voc

Cense equi-voc ASBL

Central West Permaculture

Centre for Alternative Technology

Centro Arca

Chad Hellwinckel

Cherokee Food Forest


Choka Sangha Permakultur Steyerberg


Colorado Permaculture Guild

Columbia Basin Permaculture

Community Psychology UK and Europe

Countryside and Community Research Institute, University of Gloucestershire, UK

Cranfield University




Dancing Rabbit Ecovillage

Deep Garden Design

Delta E

developing partners cic (no capital letters please)

Die Kindertherapeutin

Direct Sponsor

Duck Heaven Farm




Earth Activist Training


Earth Ways


Earthaven Ecovillage

Earthworks Edible Landscaping, LLC.

Earthworm Housing Cooperative



Ecoescuela El Manzano

EcoReality Co-op


Ecotrancoso /

Ecoversidad de los Andes Ecuatoriales (under construction)

Ecovillage DR Congo


Ecovillage Training Center

Edible Forest Garden


El Manzano

Environmental Learning Facility

Equipe pédagogique de permaculture

équipe pédagogique francophone de permaculture belgique


European Agroforestry Federation




Facebook Diploma Group


Fambidzanai Permaculture Centre

Farm Woodland Forum

Finger Lakes Permaculture Institute

Forest Farming

Forest Food Network

Forschungsinstitut f. Permakultur u. Transition

Four Winds Farm


Fraternités ouvrières à Mouscon (Belgique)

Pas de site web

Freo Permies



Gaia University

Gallifrey Permaculture

Gemeinschaftsforschung am Insitut für Soziologie Uni Münster

GEN Africa

Georg-August-University, Faculty of Geosciences and Geography

George Mason University Sustainability Institute


Global Ecovillage Network

Global Village Institute

GRAB (Groupe de Recherche en Agriculture Biologique)

great lakes permaculture

Grow Ritzville!

Guba Swaziland



Habitat groupé de Buzet


Heartland Gardens

her 2010 MFA thesis at the University of Tennessee.



Hochschule für nachhaltige Entwicklung

Hofgut Fleckenbühl

Holt Wood Herbs

Holzer´sche Permakultur

Hombres de Maíz



I have a small permi farm in New York State

none yet

Ikskile Transition Initiative

In the process of establishing Permaculture Association for Serbia


Independent Permaculture Farm

Inland Northwest Permaculture Guild


INRA/AgroParisTech (UMR SAD-APT)

Institut für Erd- und Umweltwissenschaften an der Universität Potsdam

Institute of Energy and Sustainble Development

Instituto Chileno de Permacultura


Instituto de Permacultura de El Salvador


Instituto de Permacultura Huerto del Sol

Instituto Mesoamericano de Permacultura- Guatemala

Interantional permaculture Asociation

Interdependent Web LLC

International Biochar Institute


International Cermaculture Convergence support group

International Permaculture Support Group

IPC Support Group





Jardín Botánico UNACAR


Jones Family Farm Sanctuary


Jordanian Society for Organic Farming

Jugendhilfe Leimbach Haus Leimbach

Just Food Ottawa



Kadoorie Farm & Botanic Garden




Kansas Permaculture Institute


Kasisi Agriculture Training Centre

Katie Ries began the grassroots enterprise last year as

Kaw Permaculture Collaborative


Kibbutz Lotan Center for Creative Ecology

Kingston Permaculture Reserve at Knollmead & Transition Town Kingston

Knoxville Permaculture Guild

Kosters Trädgårdar

kubus media

KURVE Wustrow - Bildungs- und Begegnungsstätte für gewaltfreie Aktion e.V.

Kusamala Institute of Agriculture and Ecology



La Fous


La Granette




Lampeter Permaculture Group

Land for Wildlife


Land O Lakes Malawi


Las Canadas

Las Cañadas

LASHAIA (soon new website)

Latvian Eco-Health Farm network

Latvian Permaculture Association

Leeds Diploma Group


Leeds Permaculture Network

Legume Futures

Leimbacher Kräuter & mehr

Liberation Ecology Project

Liberation Psychology

Lichthof Kraichtal

Linkedin Permaculture Supporter

little portion green

Lots of Life in One Place Permaculture Farm




Malindi Rural Centre


Many transition groups


Marbletown ECC

Maya Mountain Research Farm

McGill University

mein Unigartenprojekt

Melchhof Landwirtschaft

member of IPC group


Midcoast Permaculture

Milkwood Permaculture

Mon Petit Fruitier

Morocco Permaculture Association

not yet

Mount Kenya Organic Farming ( MOOF.AFRICA)

Movimiento Mesoamericano de Permacultura

Mt Kenya Environmental Group Network

My own business


National School of Forestry and Centre for Wildlife Conservation, University of Cumrbia

Native Power

Natures Friends

Naturewise and UK association, memberships lapsed, need to renew them


Nepal Permaculture Group

Netzwerk Wachstumswende

Never Ending Food

New York Permaculture Exchange

New Zealand Farm Forestry Association

newengland permaculture

new england permaculture

No tiene nombre, pero trabajamos conectados con muchos

North East Permaculture Noetwork

Northeast Permaculture listserve

Northeast Sustainable Agriculture Working Group (NESAWG)

Northern Green Gathering

Northwest Permaculture Convergence



Oak Tree Low Carbon Farm CSA

Oblong Food Coop

Occupy Wall Street (Knoxville)

Ökodorf Sieben Linden

Oregon State University

Organic Horticulture Benifits Alliance



Palaterra GmbH & Co. KG

PaLS = Permakulturpark am Lebensgarten Steyerberg

Panvita (under construction)

panya project

Patrick Whitefield Associates

PC Association Britain


Peacetree Permaculture and Edible Landscapes

Penninghame Permaculture Project

Perennial Solutions

Permacultura America Latina


Permacultura Portugual

Permaculture Assocation (Britain)

Permaculture Australia

Permaculture Belgium


Permaculture Center of Japan

Permaculture Credit Union

permaculture cymru

Permaculture Design Certificate

Permaculture Global

permaculture group Norfolk


Permaculture Institute of North America

Permaculture Institute USA

Permaculture Institute USA

permaculture israel

Permaculture listserve


Permaculture Mag Uk

Permaculture Namibia

Permaculture Network


Permaculture Network in Malawi

Permaculture Network in Malawi (very loose network)

Permaculture Ottawa

Permaculture Powell River

Permaculture Project

Permaculture Research Institute (PRI) Australia

Permaculture Research Institute of Kenya

Permaculture Research Institute, Australia

Permaculture Research International

Permaculture West


Permakultur Akademie Deutschland

Permakultur Akademie, Germany

Permakultur Austria

Permakultur Forschungsinstitut

Permakultur im Alpenraum

Permakultur Institut e.V.

Permakultur Institut eV

Permakultur Schweiz

Permakultur Verein Schweiz



Permakulturbetzwerk Bayern


Permakulturfreunde Allgäu

Permakultur-Park Bischbrunn


in progress

Personal and unofficial project on own land

Phayao Permaculture Center

none as yet

Phenology UK / Nature's Calendar


PIA Förderverein f. nachhaltiges Wirtschaften Allgäu

PIA Permakultur Akademie im Alpenraum

Plan Africa


Plants For A Future


PNM (Permaculture Network in Malawi

Polyculture design group


Polyculture Design Too

Polycultures in Suburban Gardens

Portland Maine Permaculture

pospolitost pre harmonicky zivot

Practical Action


PRI Cold Climate


Project MAYA

Project Native

Projekt Lebensdorf

Projet Apiculture


Projet Maraichage Collectif


Projet production de céréales




Quailsprings Learning Oasis and Permaculture Farm



reclaim the fields

Red de Guardianes de Semillas

Red Permanezca de Costa Rica



Regenerative Landwirtschaft

relocalisons - plaine des bordes


Remineralize the Earth

Rescope Programme

Research in Community

reseau d'échange

ReThink Red Deer

Revista Allpa (construction)

Rondout Valley Permaculture Meetup

Rondout Valley Watershed Council

Royal Botanic Gardens (Kew)

Rurban SPIN-Farming Apprenticeship



Sahara Forest

sam rossiter

Santa Barbara Califronia Permaculture Network

Santa Barbara Permaculture Network

Schumacher College

SCOPE Zimbabwe




Séminaire de Floreffe

Seri Germany

Sheffield Hallam University


Shift Bristol

Social Policy Ecology Research Institute (SPERI)

Society for Applied Anthropology

SOLINSA (support of learning and innovation networks in sustainable agriculture

Southeast Permaculture

Southern California Permaculture convergence

Spokane Permaculture

SRH Berlin

St. Pauls Baptist Church, Petersburg, VA

Stockton Borough Council

Studium Oecologicum

in progress

suomineito ekoyhteisö

Syzygy Community House



T4 Sustainability Ltd

Taller ecologista

Tatnam Organic Patch


Terra vitae

Thabang - Hilfe für Südafrikanische Kinder

Thanet Way Allotment Association, Whitstable Kent

ARI Allotment Regeneration Initiative

Thanthwe, my home in a rural village

The Ark Permaculture Project

The Garden of Union

The Growing Revolution

The Inkpot, 18 acre permaculture site

the Israeli Permaculture Institute

The Old Stone House

The Permaculture Association

The Permaculture Research Institute

The Urban Farmer

the virtuall laboratory for sustainability (Hebrew)

The Worldwide Permaculture Network

Transição Universitária

Transition Cornwall Network


Transition Ipswich

Transition Leicester

Transition Marbletown


transition network


Transition Network (Germany)


Transition Norwich

Transition Town Goettingen

Tribal Networks






UK Permaculture Association

una cum terra - permaulturkreative

univ of oxford

Universität Göttingen

Université populaire de permaculture En France

University of Exeter Earth System Science group

University of Florida

University of Ghana at Legon

University of Helsinki

University of Illinois / Multifunctional Landscape Assessment Laboratory

University of Leicester


University of Reading

University Of Strathclyde

University of Tennessee

University of the West of England

Unter die Haut


brin de paille

Urban Agriculture Basel

Urban Agriculture Basel

Urban harvest

Urtica e.V., Witzenhausen



Vallis Veg

various, including Aberystwyth Uni School of Lifelong Learning as a pc tutor


Verein Blühende Gärten

Virginia State University


Volcani Institute of Agricultural Research



Wandlitzer Erden

Wheatstone Ethical Enterprises

Wildlife garden, home based

Kent Wildlife Trust (I think)

Wolds Woodland Farming Project

World Food Programme Malawi

Worldwide Permaculture Network




Year Round Gardening press

York St John University



Zeitschrift "Oya - anders denken, anders leben"

ZHAW Wädenswil, Institut Umwelt und natürliche Ressourcen, Vertiefung Biologische Landwirtschaft und Hortikultur






Appendix 2: Research questions


Food autonomy (French)

Can Permaculture Feed the World? Is Permaculture a viable alternative towards securing food security and income Generations in Africa ( Kenya).

This research compares the food security, diet diversity and agricultural practices of smallholder farmers working with two permaculture organizations, to those who practice conventional agriculture in Central Malawi. Previous research has shown that there are socio-cultural, economic, and environmental constraints to permaculture adoption in Malawi. Given these constraints, this research investigates if smallholder farmers are able to use permaculture practices to improve their household food security and diet diversity

Designing a 99% materially closed food system.

How to enable village women to grow the nutritious foods and medicines their family needs in Zones 1 & 2

Promotion of food production by using local resources: compost and local farmers -Possibilities to combat malnutrition among children and nursing mothers


Appropriate permaculture designs for andean communities and farms - Cultivation and seed saving of native andean crops and trees, and creole (foreign adapted) plants. - Food culture in the andes

intensive planting in the 4 dimensions ground cover with edible crops yearround plant combinations

Sustainable cultivation and harvest of medicinal trees and shrubs

Generating lists of potential useful perennials, trialling those species in the field and learning their characteristics, working to develop functioning polycultures. Also researching perennial staple crops and perennial farming systems and their potential to sequester carbon and solve multiple problems. This is mostly academic research, working on two peer-reviewed papers with PhD candidate Rafter Ferguson.

Plant ecology - spatial and temporal patterns in (natural) community composition. Biodiversity and productivty of food-producing systems

Plant varieties and growing conditions laying ducks and forage conditions

Polyculture in annual crops - domestic scale

Growing of fruits, nuts, vegetable, firewood, lots of plantation timber, plus ecological zones, and learning as I go. Farmlets comprising 65 Ha or 161 acres. Experimenting, small scale, with DIY electric vehicles, and PV solar systems, and reusing / recycling strategies. It is all part of my lifestyle.

I am working on local food systems through seedsaving and adaptations over the years.

I am investigating different ways of growing vegetables and soft fruit on my allotment and also noting the wildlife in my garden. I am especially interested in polycultures in allotment gardening, in gardening for drought, in using non-mechanical methods of cultivation, in companion planting, in the benefits of allowing native wild species to grow amongst the crops, in using organic soil enrichers, in keeping down costs for equipment by various strategies, in minimising workload by careful planning and eliminating unnecessary tasks.

As a practitioner: I am working at building a collection of regionally hardy varieties for use in East TN, I am working on methods for re-purposing over-farmed TN karst land for agricultural use, I am developing methods and connections for collecting and using recycled/repurposed materials for urban/suburban gardening in the greater Knoxville area, and I am involved with the development of methodologies for creating sustainable urban and sustainable communities.

1. Forest gardens and other polycultures 2. Action research project: What makes the difference between ethical projects/ enterprises succeeding or failing?

1) Agroforestry: use of paw paw and nut trees in espalier treatments with alley crops Restoring herb and bush layers in Southeast mixed forests 2) Habitat: Reclaiming grasslands habitat in Southeast mixed forest regions 3) Maintaining riparian buffers in a small forest stand

(1) Plant species for a Mediterranean climate perennial planting, based on long term survivial and food value to humans (and, possibly, livestock), including effects of climate change on local weather patterns. (2) Various plant breeding projects to decrease chill requirements, and document actual chill requirements for setting fruit.

Feasibility of perennial food crops

fodder trees and shrubs for cool temperate areas


Design and implementation of a Wet Land Forest Garden,..Pre 1950s methods of agriculture, and Horticulture and applying to the present day. Slug control methods, French intensive horticulture pre first

world war mainly growing out of season vegetables. Design and implementation of a normal Forest Garden. Polycultures

Semi-arid climate woodlot management; Animal forage as part of food forest

Development of soil and a food forest. Production of berries, vegetables and herbs. Plus the house is on off grid solar power, recycles all waste back into the soil and basically has no services attached. The ultimate aim is self- sufficiency.

Project 1: Attempting to establish a food forest garden on an urban residential plot consisting primarily of cold hardy varieties of fruit trees, perennial fruit-bearing shrubs, and native species polinators and medicinals. The property has been covered in mixed deciduous and coniferous wood chips and shredded leaves to mimic a native forest floor - this is intended to speed up the "chop and drop" process allowing a faster establishment and expedited productivity of the food forest. Rainwater collection systems are being installed to channel thousands of litres of rainwater to nourish the plants throughout the growing season, and urban beekeeping and chickenkeeping will be added to complete the over system design in the years to come.

We are just in the beginning of research, currently doing baseline research for a reforestation project on Rusinga island incorporating FMNR and permaculture


Yield potential of permaculture supply systems; contribution of permaculture towards resilience of urban eco- systems (German)

Focused on organizations that advance pc in urban areas, strategic planning, edible and pc education, fruit tree advocacy, cognitive frame use in engaging different demographics, energy powerdown change, community and school garden designs appropriate to differs social circumstances; rural urban farm promotion

Urban permaculture. Vertical farming. Systemic. Giving courses, getting to know as much as possible about permaculture.

The community benefits of urban agriculture, which may include social, economic and environmental benefits.

Large scale compost in the city Reclaiming destroyed land for food forest and crops Creating social structures for public garden use

Contribution of Permaculture to urban resilience (German)


Technique of knowledge transfer for PDC’s (long and short). Experimenting with gardens and pedagogy. (French)

What is the most effective pedagogy to teach permaculture that maintains its original integrity.

We work with schools on sustainable gardening projects and want to incorporate permaculture principles into our lesson plans and design ideas.

the most effective means to accelerating the development of competent permaculture practitioners on a global scale

Care: Enable people to take responsibility for themselves; adult pedagogy; pre- conditions and necessary frameworks for self- designing learning processes. //

What does it mean for learners to design earning processes themelves? What resources are needed? // How can people studying permaculture best be supported to design their learning processes according to their needs? (German)

learning and innovation in sustainable agriculture

Permaculture as a tool for improving educational delivery in schools

Is the model of "transformative learning" a good fit for permaculture education? Along with Dr. Mary Beckie of the University of Alberta, we are conducting research on the impact of our 7 week permaculture internship program for Canadians in Cuba.

A research about the processes, synergy and potential benefits of integratiing philosophy and techniques of permaculture (with special attention to cio- intensive cultivation) into the “Casa Hogar San Pedro Pescador”, where 65 children live in an old school with dormitories (an area of app. 5,000 m2) (Spanish)

This research is concentrated on how permaculture can benefit 68 children living in a foster case to learn and receive education, social support and the creation of a business with the goal to achieve self- sufficiency in food production, to then later improve their financial situation and help them enrol into a programme to become entrepreneurs. (Spanish)

Effectiveness of the PDC and teaching on illiterate or very poor people, and those suffering trauma


Influence of holistic field management, additions to soil and workng of soil with the keyline plough on the development of soil and humus (University of Potsdam, Germany). Influence organic charcoal on degree of humus of soil (HNE Eberswalde). Influence of the wholistic field management on biodiversity, yield and soil structure (Melchof Landwitschaft)

The reclamation of soil, and the uses of science in that context, by ecological movements permaculture more specifically

Whether it is possible to generate enough nitrogen for crop growing just using permenent clover beds at the side of mounded raised beds.

The effect of EM on dead soil and curing diseases like clubroot and other pest infestations

Soil management, composting, intercropping, rainfall harvesting, grey water reuse

soil remediation for very alkaline, shallow near-desert environment; rainwater collection/distribution; cold/dry/hot environment plant species; native food species guilds; earth-sheltered greenhouses

Soil health, bio-diversity


Growing food an small spaces; traditional handicrafts; alternative building methods; new methods fo growing vegetables (German

Sustainable sanitation (French)

cheap hi/insulation building techniques, green roofs, efficient stoves, passive solar design, vegetable gardens, pasture management, etc.

1. Natural Building materials using hemp straw and other biomass materials, lime and earth, to make wall infills, plasters etc and combining with in-wall passive solar heating solutions. 2. Compost toiltes, reedbeds, wetlands, vacuum collection for municipal systems etc.


1) How to create an evidence base for permaculture. 2) Provision of sustainability and energy efficiency advice and renewable energy installations. This tends to revolve around relative costs of different technologies

use of biochar in backyard food forests

waste management, urban farming, energy production

Retrofitting all classic coal fired power stations and rural coal and woodburning stoves so they are emission free, promoting a next generation electricity transmission pylon which supports air CO2, particulate filtration and solar and wind technologies and developing sollar assisted aerostatic lift to enable glacier and reservoir shading and historic CO2 and remote methane capture.

Producing Ethanol from food surplus (waste in non-Perm words)

I live in a research development facility (home) that was built in 1985 as a passive solar house that recycles all its waste and collects all of its water and is built into the side of the mountain.

I am starting to think about landuse questions and how to integrate large scale PV solar arrays into a permaculture approach


1) What are the attributes of people who choose to express pro-environmental behaviours through the practice of Permaculture? 2) Which of these attributes explain the difference between people who fully engage in Permaculture practices in their personal lives and people who believe in the philosophy but do not fully engage in practicing Permaculture? 3) Which theories or combination of theories explain these differences

The impact of permaculture on eudemonia.

Social permaculture; community building, self- sufficiency through gardening, exploration and understanding of self (German)

How can we use Permaculture principles for our human reations in everyday life in order to design appropriate structures that allow everyone to develop their full potential (German )

The way of living in 3. millenium

Social permaculture - how to integrate people's needs into social design? how to make community garden projects work by social design? how to bring in people to the sustainability movement who are not from the outset interested?

What are the outcomes that matter most to people who are socially excluded when they engage in community activities with community organisations? Does participatory video production and the most

significant change approach evidence these outcomes in such a way that it fits with the person, their interpersonal relationships, their organisations and their communties lived experience?

Psychological aspects of the permaculture

Concepts of the relationship between humans and nature and its effects on sustainability processes on a community level, eco- villages and international community as experimental learning areas for sustainability. (German)

Permaculture applied to business and community organisations. Permaculture practise for use in home education

I developed a design pattern, that offers a structure for highly complex (living) systems. It is based on permaculture design. I am researching the healing power of nature in the practical and contemplative area. I work in child therapy. (German)

What is the world conception implicit in Permaculture? What is the true defenition, and route towards, a permenant culture?

How can we apply permaculture to the human processes (organisation, collaboration etc) that are essential to making projects/change happen? What difference does it really make? i.e. does it actually work as an approach to designing non-material systems? And if so, how does it compare and/or connect up with other approaches to working together?

How have urban forests in the Ottawa Greenbelt been historically conceptualized socially? How does permaculture design through the Permaculture Ottawa Community Urban Food Forest Project alter such perceptions of forests? What sorts of understandings and best practices can be learned from this and applied in urban planning?

Academically: The intersection between Conservative Christian intentional communities and ecological awareness and the green movement.

A) What are the best no-till methods of gardening in East Tennessee? B) How to build a critical mass of people using permaculture practices.

Extent & characterization of permaculture movement, science and practice in the movement, assessing the potential of global perennial staple crops, politics and theories of change in movement culture.


what guilds work well in my bio-region what make a "community"

Academic research on Transition Towns and community action for sustainbility. Interested in future research on explicitly using permaculture design approaches to develop replicable projects to promote community resilience.

The establishment of non-profit permaculture demonstration sites that are education centers and based in community land trusts

The impact of Permaculture in changing the lives of resource poor communities

Open Source + Permaculture Appropriate technology Community Management Semi-Urban Permaculture techniques and systems

The ability to grow and provide soil enrichment without bringing resources from outside. Trying to grow my yearly food supply, fresh and preserved for winter. If I can do that for one I can expand that for two. Provide extra produce for the elderly in a low income building (Northgate) in Knoxville Tn.and a few people at church. I try to share information with anyone that takes interest in my endeavor

My main interest is in low impact, small-scale farming both in itself and in how it fits into wider society

how does the fabric of a community change to start thinking and planning using systems thinking. we are totally involved with our community by examining the power of invisible structures, right at the moment we are involved with the financial structures

How to change my gardening practices (400m2 of suburban garden), how to involve my neighbours & the local council in small neighbourhood schemes (planting our streets & nut tree scheme). Comment modifier mes pratiques de jardinage (400m2 jardin en banlieu) & impliquer mes voisins & les institutionnels dans un projet de fleurissement des trottoirs et de plantation / gestion d'arbres fruitiers à coques sur un terrain à proximité.

DESIGN, Permaculture principles

Application of systematic design consultancy on permaculture projects (Spanish)

Connecting Permaculture and “Dragon Dreaming Permaculture” – an improvement of the classic permaculture

I am trying different methods of permaculture (plant-beds, building effective compost, collection of rain water, small-scale urban garden ecosystems).

Relation between permaculture principles and social-ecological resilience

implementing a Permaculture design (mine) in Northern Thailand.

Design of a space (French)

redesign of production systems to reduce reliance on phytosanitary inputs, setting up a pilot farm in

agroforestry and agroecology in Avignon: (French)

Create a kitchen garden with the help of natural agriculture for 20 years already (French)

Optimising processes. Highy quality soil, water, food; leads to healthy human beings and environment (German)

Applying permaculture principles to the organizational systems we use for networking, fundraising and outreach, as well as self-organizing in non-hierarchical ways.


What edible plants can grow under difficult circumstances? With which effort? Growing vegan food – which varieties are suitable? How can species be improves through breeding? What fruit can be stored best? (German)

Well known techniques and general knowledge that could be implemented in my country, such as: Keyline planning, aquaculture, agroforestry, biochar, etc.

Urban and rural integration, ecosystem services, multifunctional land-use, and well-being. Sustainable woodland products. Agroforestry design and sustainable land-use

Local wisdom in Land Use Planning and Livelihood Sovereignty

reintroduction of plants and their uses as colour plants

uptake and understanding of sustainable living

For now my practice evolved around everything that affects mainly the vegetation (garden, orchard, tree-wood, wild plants, medical) and also ecology, ecosystems, insects .. Also well-being of humans (communication, and now, relationship, education, ...) (French)

natural building, soil food web, community living, legal fitting in society

we work in different areas of permaculture: Agroecology: Culture bio- intensive and Soils (soil monitoring station), edible forest, chickens for eggs, milk, pasture, agroforestry production, corn and beans, seed bank, evaluation and breeding.. Bio-walling: Wood, bamboo, earth Ecotechnologies: ecological sanitation, saving stoves, ferrocement tanks, photovoltaics, gasification of firewood. etc. Education: Courses, Community High School. Spirituality and health: Temazcal, homeomatía, herbs. Economy and Finance: Self food, firewood, timber tenure and earth community government: Cooperative, collective land tenure. (Spanish)

low tech house construction; permaculture gardens; political action (German)

Agroecology; agroecology, indigenous peoples

Carbon storage with agroforestry and woodland systems Perceptions of woodland planting Bio-economic modelling of agroforestry systems

Looking for young intern who already have studied permaculture in order to start my project in brazil in 2013 (French)

How does soil life work? Methods of Jean Pain. Methods and possibilities of transition; planting grain; permaculture and transition in general (german)

MycoRestoration - research using mushroom mycelium to restore mountain forest ecosystems from mine damage and pine beetle kill. MycoFoodForestry - research utilizing mycorhyzzal fungi and mushroom mycelium to amend soils for optimimum food forest ecology Carbon Farming - researching synergistic blends of biochar, mycorhyzzal fungi, mushroom mycelium and compost teas and extracts to create superior soil amendments and sequester carbon. Appropriate Scale Organic Ethanol - research using permaculture techniques to produce organic feedstocks that are fermented and distilled into alcohol fuel which we use as a replacement for petroleum in our automobiles. Research includes distribution systems and a "Food and Fuel CSA" business model.


ormus, Polyter, electroculture, Geopolymer, EM bacteria, obtaining varieties sieversii penalty, and any resistant varieties, and relevant information about the timing of harvests, ground cover, attempt to find vulnerabilities which raises the level of tree health (cancer) and other illnesses to the trunk, frame ... well .. use of the best varieties portghes grafts, better propagation techniques (ultraponie, layering sub-Saharan Africa, apical bud grafting) (French)

Integrated house/garden organisation Development of dedicated household-level carbon calculators Food, land-use and carbon flows at a macro scale Recycling nutrients at household scale, especially compost systems, and urine Controlled horticultural pilot trials of 'permaculture claims', untested new ideas and old wives tales Big Picture decarbonisation of entire national economies Innovations in research methodology to address 'applied research' and real-world problems

Informally I am experimenting with soil regeneration, polycultures, group dynamics, animal foraging systems. I have in the past researched animal welfare on organic farms and pesticide residues in brassicas.

Application of Mycorrhiza fungi to a variety of ornamental crops and herbs

Bamboo Chicken Forage Forest Gardening Bonfils Grain Growing

Agroforestry and Bamboo; agroforestry, close to nature forestry

Biochar, Terra Preta, Flächenproduktivität, Humusanreicherung, Sytemoptimierung


As a practitioner I want to link myself to Permaculture experts to help me develop Research questions

how can I act in my communities of practice in a way that empowers others to act

We would like to create a platform for designing, documenting and testing productive polycultures.

Opportunities for alternative land- use in southern Germany, which inspire people to take on responsibility and to have fun while doing something useful (German)

LAND - project that is part of the PA (as part of an EU project about innovations in sustainable agriculture, called SOLINSA)

Create a site that allows everyone to practice permaculture and to benefit from that experience. (French)

How Latvian farmers view permaculture ( 2010) In the future we would like to do some more practical permaculture experiments with practices in the Latvian context and document results; I would also be interested in doing research in other countries, time and funding allowing

How can we manage our university in am more sustainable way, with little money? (german)

I am interested in how permaculture is used in the context of intentional communities as part of broader strategies for developing more sustainable livelihoods and cultures. I am also interested in exploring how permaculture theory and practice on the one hand and environmental anthropology theory and practice on the other can complement each other in pursuit of shared goals.

How can you build Genuine & Maintainable local-resilience as quickly as possible; incorporating Permaculture, the Transition Town Initiative, local governments, Businesses local & nation and the job-centre?

How to integrate the concept of permaculture in academic research? How co-operative structures can help people take back control over food supply chain, housing and work? How to bring issues of social change into people's everyday life in order to enhance connectedness with these issues?

How to decide to use a common land and how to make it good for everyone including plants and animals

Current research focuses on how we can best share knowledge to create a sustainable future. I also work on developing a peatland carbon code.


Direct marketing of agricultural products (German)

There are many, depending upon whether we are working on schools education, sustainable healthcare, or market access. Some related to market access are as follows: 1) To what extent does a participatory, practice-based and intensive farmer learning approach enable the mastery of permaculture concepts and practices that result in improved food and income security? 2) What is the potential for organic certification to increase income generation for participating permaculture farmers? 3) In what ways do national organic standards advance the interests of certified producers and consumers of organic produce? 4) What critical factors enable or constrain a successful transition from subsistence to commercial organic farming? 5) What is the wider impact of increased productivity & market access, and how are these benefits articulated by producers themselves? 6) What factors enable and constrain the wider acceptance and increased uptake of successful permaculture practices?

Project 2 The urban SPIN-Farmer Apprenticeship (RSFA) program is a project of ReThink Red Deer and partners designed to provide in-depth and comprehensive training in sustainable, small-scale, rurban farming methods. Through formal classes, hands-on training, field-trips, online learning, farmers' market sales and supervised apprenticeships, RSFA instruction will prepare students to produce market fresh vegetables, fruits, grains, cut flowers, and other value-added products using permaculture methods. Participants will also learn the knowledge and skills needed to design, install, and manage farm and community landscape infrastructure in urban, peri-urban, and rural settings.

Economical performance of farming production applying permaculture principles


Optimal nitrogen fixing for cacao as a cash crop. Optimal Water Catchment in Tropical Soil latex cement and bamboo water systems Medicinal tropical poly culture systems per hector yield of tropical agro forestry based around cacao as keystone species and main cash crop


heavy clay soils, warming climate, use of unwanted green matter

How to prepare Malawians and the Subsaharan to avoid desrtification

Reversing climate change, nuclear power/weapons proliferation and other existential threats.

How can permaculture help adapta to climate change? How to measure it? Where are the projects already doing pratical adaptation and what are they doing?


dry lands

Permaculture in landscape restoration

Plant community ecology, landscape ecology, remote sensing & GIS, ecological modelling, functional traits

Traditional farming methods and practices of sub-Saharan Africa with special interest in Ghana

working on a gently-sloped, clay, compacted acre to develop alternating wet/dry areas

welsh food security and traditional welsh methods of 'hoarding the harvest'

What are some ecological methods for bringing Agropyron repens into balance in the garden ecosystem?


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