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TREES AND SHRUBS FOR SHELTERBELTS

Botanical name Common name Deciduous/ Evergreen Height Growth rate Hardiness Wind Notes
Abies procera Noble fir E T M 5 W Prefers a good moist soil but tolerates poor mountain peats. Dislikes atmospheric pollution.
Acacia longifolia Sallow wattle E M M 8 W Most soils, sunny position. Tolerates some lime Edible seed and pods-cooked. Soil stabilizer.
Acer negundo Box elder D M-T M 2 W Moist well drained soil, sunny position. Edible sap.
Acer platanoides Norway maple D M-T M 3 W Moist well drained soil. Edible sap. Dye.
Acer pseudo-platanus Sycamore D T M-F 5 M Most soils. Can be wind-shaped. Edible sap. Medicinal.
Acer saccharinum Silver maple D M-T M-F 3 W Moist well drained soil. Edible sap and inner bark. Dye, ink.
Alnus cordata Italian alder D T F 6 M Succeeds in drier soils than most alders. Lime tolerant.
Alnus glutinosa Alder D M-T F 3 M See hedge list.
Alnus rubra Red alder D T F 6 M Most soils. Very quick to establish. Edible buds, sap and catkins. Red dye.
Amelanchier alnifolia Service berry D S M 2 W Moist well drained soil, sunny position. Lime tolerant. Edible fruit. Tea. Soil stabilisation.
Amelanchier canadensis Juneberry D M M 4 W See hedge list.
Araucaria araucana Monkey puzzle E T S 8 M Deep moist soil. Best in moister areas of Britain. Dislikes air pollution. Edible seed. Medicinal.
Arbutus unedo Strawberry tree E S-M M 7 M Moist soils, lime tolerant. Sunny position. Resents root disturbance. Edible fruit. Tannin.
Arctostaphyllos manzanita Manzanita E S S 8 M Sunny well drained lime free soil. Edible fruit. Brown dye.
Buddleia davidii Butterfly bush D S M-F 5 W Most soils, sunny position. Dyes.
Bumelia lanuginosa Chittamwood D M S-M 6 M Well drained soil, warm sunny position. Edible fruit. Gum-used for chewing.
Castanea sativa Sweet chestnut D T S-M 5 M Most soils, but dislikes lime. Edible seed. Hair shampoo, tannin, medicinal.
Cedrus deodara Deodar E T M 5 W Most well drained soils, sunny position. Medicinal.
Celtis occidentalis Sugarberry D T S 2 W Most soils, drought resistant. Edible fruit and seed. Dye.
Chamaecyparis lawsoniana Lawson`s cypress E T F 6 W See hedge list.
Clematis flammula   D S-M M 6 W Dislikes heavy clay or sandy soils. Lime tolerant. Edible young shoots-cooked? Probably toxic.
Cordyline australis Cabbage palm E S-M S 8 M Well drained soils. Edible roots, shoots and pith-cooked. Fructose from stem and roots. Fibre.
Cornus capitata Bentham`s cornel D M M 8 M Most soils. Edible fruit.
Correa alba Botany bay tea tree E S S 9 M Peaty soil, sunny position. Tea.
Crataegus spp. Hawthorns D M M-F 5 W Most soils. Edible fruit and young leaves. Most species can be used other than C. apiifolia and C. spathulata.
Cryptomeria japonica Japanese cedar E T M 6 W Most soils, doing best in W. Britain. Incense.
Cupressocyparis leylandii Leyland cypress E T F 7 M See hedge list.
Cupressus macrocarpa Monterey cypress E T F 8 M See hedge list.
Eucalyptus coccifera Snow gum E M M 8 W Deep well drained soil, sunny position. Dyes.
Eucalyptus johnstonii Yellow gum E T M-F 8 M Deep well drained soil, sunny position.
Eucalyptus niphophylla Snow gum E S-M S 7 M Deep well drained soil, sunny position. Essential oil.
Eucalyptus pauciflora Ghost gum E M-T M 7 M Deep well drained soil, sunny position.
Fraxinus excelsior Ash D T F 4 M Prefers deep soils, succeeding on chalk. Can be wind shaped. Edible seed. Dye, medicinal, string.
Fraxinus pensylvanica Red ash D M-T M-F 4 W Most soils. Tolerates urban pollution. Edible inner bark. Medicinal.
Ilex opaca American holly E M S-M 5 W Most soils if not waterlogged. Dislikes root disturbance. Tea.
Juniperus communis Juniper E M S-M 6 M Most soils. Edible fruit-a flavouring. Incense, fumigant, insect repellent, varnish, tea, medicinal.

Botanical name Common name Deciduous/ Evergreen Height Growth rate Hardiness Wind Notes
Larix decidua Larch D T F 4 M Well drained soils, dislikes chalk or peat. Edible inner bark. Resin, tannin, medicinal.
Maclura pommifera Osage orange D M M 5 W See hedge list.
Morus alba White mulberry D M M 4 W Good soil, sunny position. Var. "Tartarica"is used. Edible fruit and young leaves. Dye, fibre.
Picea abies Norway spruce E T F 4 W Damp well drained soil. Dislikes lime. Sunny position. Pitch, essential oil, varnish, medicinal.
Picea glauca White spruce E T M 2 W Damp well drained soil, tolerating poor peats. Var. "denstat"is used. Edible young leaves. Tea.
Picea mariana Black spruce E M S 2 W Prefers deep moist soils. Short-lived. Edible catkins, inner bark and gum from bark. Tea, dye.
Picea pungens Blue spruce E T M 3 W Tolerates poor peaty soils. Prefers a cold dry high mountain site. Edible cones. Tea.
Picea sitchensis Sitka spruce E T F 7 M Thrives in acid soils. Requires cool wet summers. Sunny position. Edible shoots and cones. Tea.
Pinus balfouriana Foxtail pine E T S 5 W Sunny well drained soil.
Pinus contorta Shore pine E S-M M-F 7 M Sunny position. Tolerates water-logged soils. Edible sap and inner bark. Pitch medicinal.
Pinus flexilis Limber pine E T M 3 W Sunny well drained soil. Edible seed and inner bark.
Pinus halepensis Aleppo pine E M-T M 8 W Sunny well drained soil, tolerating chalk. Tannin, resin.
Pinus mugo Mountain pine E S M 3 M Sunny position. Tolerates poor soils. Stabilizes sandy soils. Medicinal.
Pinus muricata Bishop pine E T F 8 M Sunny well drained soil, doing well on barren acid sandy soils.
Pinus nigra Black pine E T F 5 M Succeeds on chalk. Sunny well drained soil. Resin, turpentine.
Pinus peuce Balkan pine E T M 5 W Sunny well drained soil.
Pinus pinaster Maritime pine E T F 8 M Sunny well drained soil. Soil stabilizer. Resin.
Pinus ponderosa Ponderosa pine E T M-F 4 W Sunny well drained soil. Edible seed, inner bark. Dye, strewing herb, insulation.
Pinus radiata Monterey pine E T F 8 M Sunny well drained soil.
Pinus sylvestris Scots pine E T M 2 M Sunny well drained soil. Edible inner bark. Resin, essential oil, dye, candles from roots.
Pinus thunbergii Japanese pine E T F 6 W Sunny well drained soil. Edible inner bark. Soil stabilizer. Medicinal.
Platanus occidentalis Western plane D T F 5 W Sunny position. Tolerates drought, air pollution and compacted soils. Disease-prone. Edible sap.
Populus alba White poplar D T M-F 3 M Deep fertile well drained soil. Edible leaves, inner bark. dye, medicinal.
Populus x. canadensis Canadian poplar D T F 4 W Deep fertile well drained soil.
Populus x. canescens Grey poplar D T F 4 M Deep fertile well drained soil.
Populus deltoides Cottonwood D T F 2 W Deep fertile well drained soil. Edible inner bark and young buds. Soil stabilization.
Populus nigra Black poplar D T F 2 W Deep fertile well drained soil. Cork substitute, medicinal.
Populus tremula Aspen D T F 2 M Moist including heavy cold and damp soils. Edible inner bark. Medicinal.
Prunus cerasifera Cherry plum D M M 4 W See hedge list.
Prunus insititia Damson D S-M M 5 W See hedge list.
Prunus maritima Beach plum D S M 3 M Well drained soil, preferring chalk. Sunny position. Edible fruit. Soil stabilization.
Prunus spinosa Sloe D S M 4 M See hedge list.

Botanical name Common name Deciduous/ Evergreen Height Growth rate Hardiness Wind Notes
Pseudotsuga menziesii Douglas fir E T M-F 7 W Best in a good moist soil, dislikes chalk. Cork substitute, insecticide, tannin, tea, dye, resin.
Pyracantha angustifolia Firethorn E S M 7 W Well drained soil, sun or semi-shade. Succeeds on chalk.
Quercus ilex Holm oak E T S-M 7 M See hedge list.
Quercus suber Cork oak E T S-M 8 M Prefers a deep fertile soil. Cork.
Rhus typhina Stags horn sumach D M M-F 3 W Most soils including poor ones. Edible fruit, lemonade-like drink. Dye, tannin. Soil stabilization. R. copallina and R. glabra can also be used.
Salix acutifolia   D M F 5 M Most soils if moist. Sunny position. Sand stabilizer, basketry.
Salix alba White willow D T F 2 M See hedge list.
Salix "Bowles hybrid" Bowle`s willow D T F 4 M See hedge list.
Salix brachycarpa   D S M 4 M Most soils if moist. Sunny position.
Salix caprea Goat willow D M F 5 M See hedge list.
Salix daphnoides Violet willow D M F 5 M Most soils if moist. Sunny position. Edible inner bark and catkins. Sand stabilizer, basketry.
Salix hookeriana   D S M 6 M Most soils if moist. Sunny position. Sand stabilizer, string from bark.
Sorbus aria Whitebeam D M M 5 M Most soils. Sunny position. Edible fruit-bletted. Medicinal.
Sorbus aucuparia Rowan D M-T M 2 W Prefers a cool moist position. Edible fruit, oil from seed. Tea, dye, medicinal.
Sorbus intermedia   D M M 5 M See hedge list.
Tamarix africana Tamarisk D M M 8 M Most soils, preferring a good deep loam when inland.
Tamarix gallica Manna plant D S M 5 M See hedge list.
Tamarix parviflora Tamarisk D S-M M 5 M Most soils, preferring a good deep loam when inland.
Tamarix ramosissima Tamarisk D S-M M 2 M Most soils, preferring a good deep loam when inland. Edible manna.
Thuja plicata Western red cedar E T M-F 6 W See hedge list.
Tilia americana American lime D T M 3 W Prefers a fertile neutral to alkaline soil.
Ulmus spp. Elms D M-T M-F 5 M U. glabra, U. parvifolia, U. procera and U. pumila are good wind-resistant trees but are susceptible to Dutch elm disease.

 

KEY

D = DECIDUOUS E = EVERGREEN

HEIGHT:- S = SMALL (TO 4ft FOR HEDGES, 20ft FOR TREES. ) M = MEDIUM (TO 6ft FOR HEDGES, 50ft FOR TREES. ) T = TALL (OVER 6ft FOR HEDGES, OVER 50ft FOR TREES. )

RATE OF GROWTH:- S = SLOW M = MEDIUM F = FAST

WIND RESISTANCE:- W = TOLERATES WINDY SITES M = TOLERATES MARITIME EXPOSURE

HARDINESS ZONES 1(HARDIEST) TO 10:- MOST OF BRITAIN IS IN ZONE 7 OR 8 WITH SOME UPLAND AND NORTHERN AREAS BEING COLDER WHILST WESTERN AND SOUTHERN COASTAL AREAS ARE MILDER.

When using this list it is important to remember that it can only contain a small portion of the information we hold on each plant. You are strongly advised to seek more information on any plant before making use of it in the manner suggested. This is especially important with any of the comments on edibility

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