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Sambucus nigra - L.                
                 
Common Name Elderberry - European Elder, Black elderberry, American black elderberry, Blue elderberry, Europea
Family Caprifoliaceae
Synonyms Sambucus graveolens. Sambucus peruviana
Known Hazards The leaves and stems are poisonous[9, 76]. The fruit of many species (although no records have been seen for this species) has been known to cause stomach upsets to some people. Any toxin the fruit might contain is liable to be of very low toxicity and is destroyed when the fruit is cooked[65, 76].
Habitats Hedgerows, scrub, woods, roadsides, waste places etc, especially on disturbed base-rich and nitrogen rich soils[9, 17].
Range Europe, including Britain, from Scandanavia south and east to N. Africa and W. Asia.
Edibility Rating  
Medicinal Rating  
Care
Fully Hardy Moist Soil Semi-shade Full sun

Summary       
Bloom Color: White. Main Bloom Time: Early summer. Form: Rounded.

Physical Characteristics       
 icon of manicon of shrub
Sambucus nigra is a deciduous Shrub growing to 6 m (19ft) by 6 m (19ft) at a fast rate.
It is hardy to zone (UK) 5 and is not frost tender. It is in leaf 11-Mar It is in flower from Jun to July, and the seeds ripen from Aug to September. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Flies.It is noted for attracting wildlife.


USDA hardiness zone : 5-7


Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and can grow in heavy clay soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils and can grow in very alkaline soils.
It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist soil. The plant can tolerate maritime exposure.
It can tolerate atmospheric pollution.

Sambucus nigra Elderberry - European Elder, Black elderberry,  American black elderberry,  Blue elderberry, Europea


Sambucus nigra Elderberry - European Elder, Black elderberry,  American black elderberry,  Blue elderberry, Europea
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User:Franz_Xaver
   
Habitats       
Woodland Garden Sunny Edge; Dappled Shade; Shady Edge; Hedge;
Edible Uses                                         
Edible Parts: Flowers;  Fruit.
Edible Uses: Colouring;  Tea.

Fruit - raw or cooked[2, 3, 5, 46, 61]. The flavour of the raw fruit is not acceptable to many tastes, though when cooked it makes delicious jams, preserves, pies and so forth[K]. It can be used fresh or dried, the dried fruit being less bitter[12, 183, 238]. The fruit is used to add flavour and colour to preserves, jams, pies, sauces, chutneys etc, it is also often used to make wine[13, 183]. The fruit is about 8mm in diameter and is borne in large clusters[200]. Some caution is advised, see the notes above on toxicity. Flowers - raw or cooked[2, 5, 12, 53]. They can also be dried for later use[21]. The flowers are crisp and somewhat juicy, they have an aromatic smell and flavour and are delicious raw as a refreshing snack on a summers day, though look out for the insects[K]. The flowers are used to add a muscatel flavour to stewed fruits, jellies and jams (especially gooseberry jam)[238]. They are often used to make a sparkling wine[183]. A sweet tea is made from the dried flowers[21, 183]. The leaves are used to impart a green colouring to oils and fats[183].
Medicinal Uses


Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants. Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.

Antiinflammatory;  Aperient;  Diaphoretic;  Diuretic;  Emetic;  Emollient;  Expectorant;  Galactogogue;  Haemostatic;  Laxative;  Ophthalmic;  
Purgative;  Salve;  Stimulant.

Elder has a very long history of household use as a medicinal herb and is also much used by herbalists[4]. The plant has been called 'the medicine chest of country people'[4]. The flowers are the main part used in modern herbalism, though all parts of the plant have been used at times[238]. Stimulant[9, 53, 165]. The inner bark is collected from young trees in the autumn and is best sun-dried[4]. It is diuretic, a strong purgative and in large doses emetic[4, 7]. It is used in the treatment of constipation and arthritic conditions[238]. An emollient ointment is made from the green inner bark[4]. The leaves can be used both fresh or dry. For drying, they are harvested in periods of fine weather during June and July. The leaves are purgative, but are more nauseous than the bark[4]. They are also diaphoretic, diuretic, expectorant and haemostatic[4, 7]. The juice is said to be a good treatment for inflamed eyes[4]. An ointment made from the leaves is emollient and is used in the treatment of bruises, sprains, chilblains, wounds etc[4]. The fresh flowers are used in the distillation of 'Elder Flower Water'. The flowers can be preserved with salt to make them available for distillation later in the season[4]. The water is mildly astringent and a gentle stimulant. It is mainly used as a vehicle for eye and skin lotions[4]. The dried flowers are diaphoretic, diuretic, expectorant, galactogogue and pectoral[4, 7]. An infusion is very effective in the treatment of chest complaints and is also used to bathe inflamed eyes[4]. The infusion is also a very good spring tonic and blood cleanser[4]. Externally, the flowers are used in poultices to ease pain and abate inflammation[4]. Used as an ointment, it treats chilblains, burns, wounds, scalds etc[4]. The fruit is depurative, weakly diaphoretic and gently laxative[4, 7]. A tea made from the dried berries is said to be a good remedy for colic and diarrhoea[4]. The fruit is widely used for making wines, preserves etc., and these are said to retain the medicinal properties of the fruit[4]. The pith of young stems is used in treating burns and scalds[46, 61, 100]. The root is no longer used in herbal medicine but it formerly had a high reputation as an emetic and purgative that was very effective against dropsy[4]. A homeopathic remedy is made from the fresh inner bark of young branches[4]. It relieves asthmatic symptoms and spurious croup in children[4]. The German Commission E Monographs, a therapeutic guide to herbal medicine, approve Sambucus nigra for cough and bronchitis, fevers and colds (see [302] for critics of commission E).
Other Uses
Compost;  Cosmetic;  Dye;  Fungicide;  Hedge;  Hedge;  Insecticide;  Litmus;  Microscope;  Musical;  Pioneer;  Pipes;  Repellent;  Wood.

The plant is a valuable addition to the compost heap[14, 18], its flowers are an alternative ingredient of 'QR' herbal compost activator[32] and the roots of the plant improve fermentation of the compost heap when growing nearby[18]. The leaves are used as an insect repellent[4, 6, 14, 66], very effective when rubbed on the skin though they do impart their own unique fragrance[K]. They can be powdered and placed amongst plants to act as a deterrent[14], or made into a spray when they act as an insecticide[7]. This is prepared by boiling 3 - 4 handfuls of leaves in a litre of water, then straining and allowing to cool before applying[201]. Effective against many insects, it also treats various fungal infections such as leaf rot and powdery mildew[201].The dried flowering shoots are used to repel insects, rodents etc[101]. The flowers are used in skin lotions, oils and ointments[238]. Tolerant of salt-laden gales, this species can be grown as a shelter hedge in exposed maritime areas[29, 75], it is rather bare in the winter though[K]. This is an excellent pioneer species to use when re-establishing woodlands. It is very tough and wind-resistant, grows quickly and provides shelter for longer-lived and taller woodland species to establish. It will generally maintain itself in the developing woodland, though usually in the sunnier positions[K]. A dye is obtained from the fruit and the bark[13, 15]. The bark of older branches and the root have been used as an ingredient in dyeing black[4]. A green dye is obtained from the leaves when alum is used as a mordant[4]. The berries yield various shades of blue and purple dyes[4]. They have also been used as a hair dye, turning the hair black[4]. The blue colouring matter from the fruit can be used as a litmus to test if something is acid or alkaline. It turns green in an alkaline solution and red in an acid solution[4]. The pith in the stems of young branches pushes out easily and the hollow stems thus made have been used as pipes for blowing air into a fire[4]. They can also be made into musical instruments[4]. The pith of the wood is used for making microscope slides and also for treating burns and scalds[46, 61, 100]. The mature wood is white and fine-grained. It is easily cut and polishes well[4]. Valued highly by carpenters, it has many used, for making skewers, mathematical instruments, toys etc[4, 13, 100, 244].
Cultivation details                                         
Landscape Uses:Border, Container, Massing, Pollard, Standard, Seashore, Specimen. A very easily grown plant, it tolerates most soils and situations[11, 28, 98], growing well on chalk[28, 98, 186], but prefers a moist loamy soil[200]. Grows well in heavy clay soils. Tolerates some shade but fruits better in a sunny position[37, 200]. Tolerates atmospheric pollution and coastal situations[200]. Another report says that it is intolerant of very smoky atmospheres[186]. The elder is very occasionally cultivated for its edible fruit, there are some named varieties though most of these have been developed for their ornamental value[182]. The sub-species S. nigra alba has white/green fruits that are nicer than the type species and are quite nice raw[K]. The elder also has a very long history of folk use, both medicinally and for a wide range of other uses. All in all it is a very valuable plant to have in the garden. The leaves often begin to open as early as January and are fully open in April[186]. The leaves fall in October/November in exposed sites, later in sheltered positions[186]. Young stems can be killed by late frosts but they are soon replaced from the ground level[186]. Very tolerant of pruning, plants can be cut back to ground level and will regrow from the base[186]. The flowers have a sweet, almost overpowering smell, not exactly pleasant when inhaled near to for it has fishy undertones, but from a distance its musky scent is appealing[245]. Very resistant to the predations of rabbits[17, 186]. The flowers are very attractive to insects[186]. The fruit is very attractive to birds[186] and this can draw them away from other cultivated fruits[14, 186]. The elder is an early colonizer of derelict land, the seed arriving in the defecations of birds and mammals[186]. It is a very good pioneer species for re-establishing woodlands. Plants in this genus are notably resistant to honey fungus[200]. Special Features:Attractive foliage, Not North American native, Attractive flowers or blooms.
                                                                                 
Propagation                                         
Seed - best sown as soon as it is ripe in the autumn in a cold frame, when it should germinate in early spring. Stored seed can be sown in the spring in a cold frame but will probably germinate better if it is given 2 months warm followed by 2 months cold stratification first[78, 98, 113]. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle. If good growth is made, the young plants can be placed in their permanent positions during the early summer. Otherwise, either put them in a sheltered nursery bed, or keep them in their pots in a sheltered position and plant them out in spring of the following year. Cuttings of half-ripe wood, 7 - 10cm with a heel, July/August in a frame[78]. Cuttings of mature wood of the current season's growth, 15 - 20cm with a heel, late autumn in a frame or a sheltered outdoor bed[78]. Division of suckers in the dormant season.
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Expert comment                                         
 
      
Author                                         
L.
                                                                                 
Botanical References                                         
1117200
                                                                                 
Links / References                                         

  [K] Ken Fern Notes from observations, tasting etc at Plants For A Future and on field trips.

[2]Hedrick. U. P. Sturtevant's Edible Plants of the World.
Lots of entries, quite a lot of information in most entries and references.
[3]Simmons. A. E. Growing Unusual Fruit.
A very readable book with information on about 100 species that can be grown in Britain (some in greenhouses) and details on how to grow and use them.
[4]Grieve. A Modern Herbal.
Not so modern (1930's?) but lots of information, mainly temperate plants.
[5]Mabey. R. Food for Free.
Edible wild plants found in Britain. Fairly comprehensive, very few pictures and rather optimistic on the desirability of some of the plants.
[6]Mabey. R. Plants with a Purpose.
Details on some of the useful wild plants of Britain. Poor on pictures but otherwise very good.
[7]Chiej. R. Encyclopaedia of Medicinal Plants.
Covers plants growing in Europe. Also gives other interesting information on the plants. Good photographs.
[9]Launert. E. Edible and Medicinal Plants.
Covers plants in Europe. a drawing of each plant, quite a bit of interesting information.
[11]Bean. W. Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement.
A classic with a wealth of information on the plants, but poor on pictures.
[12]Loewenfeld. C. and Back. P. Britain's Wild Larder.
A handy pocket guide.
[13]Triska. Dr. Hamlyn Encyclopaedia of Plants.
Very interesting reading, giving some details of plant uses and quite a lot of folk-lore.
[14]Holtom. J. and Hylton. W. Complete Guide to Herbs.
A good herbal.
[15]Bryan. J. and Castle. C. Edible Ornamental Garden.
A small book with interesting ideas for edible plants in the ornamental garden.
[17]Clapham, Tootin and Warburg. Flora of the British Isles.
A very comprehensive flora, the standard reference book but it has no pictures.
[18]Philbrick H. and Gregg R. B. Companion Plants.
Details of beneficial and antagonistic relationships between neighbouring plants.
[21]Lust. J. The Herb Book.
Lots of information tightly crammed into a fairly small book.
[28]Knight. F. P. Plants for Shade.
A small but informative booklet listing plants that can be grown in shady positions with a few cultivation details.
[29]Shepherd. F.W. Hedges and Screens.
A small but informative booklet giving details of all the hedging plants being grown in the R.H.S. gardens at Wisley in Surrey.
[32]Bruce. M. E. Commonsense Compost Making.
Excellent little booklet dealing with how to make compost by using herbs to activate the heap. Gives full details of the herbs that are used.
[37]Thompson. B. The Gardener's Assistant.
Excellent general but extensive guide to gardening practices in the 19th century. A very good section on fruits and vegetables with many little known species.
[46]Uphof. J. C. Th. Dictionary of Economic Plants.
An excellent and very comprehensive guide but it only gives very short descriptions of the uses without any details of how to utilize the plants. Not for the casual reader.
[53]De. Bray. L. The Wild Garden.
Interesting reading.
[61]Usher. G. A Dictionary of Plants Used by Man.
Forget the sexist title, this is one of the best books on the subject. Lists a very extensive range of useful plants from around the world with very brief details of the uses. Not for the casual reader.
[66]Freethy. R. From Agar to Zenery.
Very readable, giving details on plant uses based on the authors own experiences.
[75]Rosewarne experimental horticultural station. Shelter Trees and Hedges.
A small booklet packed with information on trees and shrubs for hedging and shelterbelts in exposed maritime areas.
[78]Sheat. W. G. Propagation of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers.
A bit dated but a good book on propagation techniques with specific details for a wide range of plants.
[98]Gordon. A. G. and Rowe. D. C. f. Seed Manual for Ornamental Trees and Shrubs.
Very comprehensive guide to growing trees and shrubs from seed. Not for the casual reader.
[100]Polunin. O. Flowers of Europe - A Field Guide.
An excellent and well illustrated pocket guide for those with very large pockets. Also gives some details on plant uses.
[101]Turner. N. J. and Szczawinski. A. Edible Wild Fruits and Nuts of Canada.
A very readable guide to some wild foods of Canada.
[113]Dirr. M. A. and Heuser. M. W. The Reference Manual of Woody Plant Propagation.
A very detailed book on propagating trees. Not for the casual reader.
[165]Mills. S. Y. The Dictionary of Modern Herbalism.
An excellent small herbal.
[182]Thomas. G. S. Ornamental Shrubs, Climbers and Bamboos.
Contains a wide range of plants with a brief description, mainly of their ornamental value but also usually of cultivation details and varieties.
[183]Facciola. S. Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants.
Excellent. Contains a very wide range of conventional and unconventional food plants (including tropical) and where they can be obtained (mainly N. American nurseries but also research institutes and a lot of other nurseries from around the world.
[186]Beckett. G. and K. Planting Native Trees and Shrubs.
An excellent guide to native British trees and shrubs with lots of details about the plants.
[200]Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.
[201]Allardice.P. A - Z of Companion Planting.
A well produced and very readable book.
[238]Bown. D. Encyclopaedia of Herbs and their Uses.
A very well presented and informative book on herbs from around the globe. Plenty in it for both the casual reader and the serious student. Just one main quibble is the silly way of having two separate entries for each plant.
[244]Phillips. R. & Foy. N. Herbs
Deals with all types of herbs including medicinal, culinary, scented and dye plants. Excellent photographs with quite good information on each plant.
[245]Genders. R. Scented Flora of the World.
An excellent, comprehensive book on scented plants giving a few other plant uses and brief cultivation details. There are no illustrations.
[302]From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Commission E
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Commission_E

Readers comment                                         
 
Elizabeth H.
tholens@mnns.com Tue Mar 14 2006
Where can you buy dried Sambucus berries for human consumption?
Elizabeth H.
Bruno Cardoso Sun Jul 23 2006
In Portugal. If you want to buy Sambucus with quality you can contact us by email: brcardoso@hotmail.com
Elizabeth H.
Sun Oct 29 2006
You can have fresh flowers or berries during the season in Poland in the wild. You can pick them up and dry the flowers, the fruit or make preserves or syrup yourself. Andrzej L. Skup'
Elizabeth H.
Bruno Cardoso Fri Nov 3 2006
http://www.bagasabugueiro.blogspot.com/

Elizabeth H.
Marie Wed Feb 28 2007
I would like to purchase leaves only.

Wild Pantry wild foods and medicinal plants

Elizabeth H.
Alan Bull Fri Feb 23 2007
I live in Worcester and someone, who I suspect is on the make, calls and wants to have a go at 2 elderberry bushes I have. One is about 3 feet away from the house and the other about 1-2 feet away. He says they will damage the house foundations. They have been there since before I bought the house in 1983 and there seems no obvious difficulty. I should be grateful if anyone can comment. Many thanks
Elizabeth H.
Tue Jul 24 2007
i've been making elderberry wine for years now; I absolutely love it. i use a native north american species here in california.
Elizabeth H.
Christine Fri Feb 22 2008
I use the juice from the wild bushes growing in my garden as a performant and non-toxic anti-tussive for my young children under 6 years old. My Father (75 years old) also often uses it.
Elizabeth H.
Daniel Levanon, POh.D. Sun Mar 30 2008
In reply to Alan Bull Fri Feb 23 2007 (above): That's pure nonsense. This man should present written evidence to his claim about the (precariously) harmful effects of Sambucus' roots to the house foundations. He'll find none. There are no such evidence in the professional literature.
Sarah B.
May 1 2012 12:00AM
I have just purchased a Sambucus nigra 'Variegata' for my garden. I doesn't get as tall as other varieties; 6-15 feet. The variegation is a beautiful bright green with cream around the edges of the leaves.
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