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Pinus koraiensis - Siebold.&Zucc.
                 
Common Name Korean Nut Pine, Chinese pinenut
Family Pinaceae
USDA hardiness 4-7
Known Hazards The wood, sawdust and resins from various species of pine can cause dermatitis in sensitive people[222].
Habitats Dry mountain slopes, especially those facing north, to 2600 metres[74, 120].
Range E. Asia - China, Korea, Manchuria, Siberia.
Edibility Rating  
Other Uses  
Weed Potential No
Medicinal Rating  
Care
Fully Hardy Well drained soil Moist Soil Full sun

Summary

Pinus koraiensis Korean Nut Pine, Chinese pinenut


http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Pinus_koraiensis_Pinus_parviflora_SZ116.png
Pinus koraiensis Korean Nut Pine, Chinese pinenut
   
Physical Characteristics
 icon of manicon of cone
Pinus koraiensis is an evergreen Tree growing to 20 m (65ft 7in) at a medium rate.
It is hardy to zone (UK) 3. It is in leaf 12-Jan It is in flower in May, and the seeds ripen in September. The flowers are monoecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but both sexes can be found on the same plant) and are pollinated by Wind.The plant is not self-fertile.
Suitable for: light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils, prefers well-drained soil and can grow in nutritionally poor soil. Suitable pH: acid and neutral soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers dry or moist soil and can tolerate drought.

Synonyms
P. mandschurica.
Habitats
Woodland Garden Canopy;
Edible Uses
Edible Parts: Oil;  Seed.
Edible Uses: Condiment;  Oil.

Seed - raw or cooked. Rich in oil[2, 11, 46, 63, 74, 81]. A soft texture with a hint of resin in the flavour, it makes a delicious snack and can also be used as a staple food[K]. The seed can also be dried and ground into a powder then used as a flavouring and thickener in soups etc[183]. Fairly large, the seeds are up to16mm x 12mm[200]. A vanillin flavouring is obtained as a by-product of other resins that are released from the pulpwood[200].
Medicinal Uses


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Analgesic;  Antibacterial;  Antiinflammatory;  Galactogogue;  Poultice.

The seed contains several medically active compounds and is analgesic, antibacterial and antiinflammatory[279]. It is used in Korea in the treatment of earache, epistaxis and to promote milk flow in nursing mothers[279]. The turpentine obtained from the resin of all pine trees is antiseptic, diuretic, rubefacient and vermifuge[4]. It is a valuable remedy used internally in the treatment of kidney and bladder complaints and is used both internally and as a rub and steam bath in the treatment of rheumatic affections[4]. It is also very beneficial to the respiratory system and so is useful in treating diseases of the mucous membranes and respiratory complaints such as coughs, colds, influenza and TB[4]. Externally it is a very beneficial treatment for a variety of skin complaints, wounds, sores, burns, boils etc and is used in the form of liniment plasters, poultices, herbal steam baths and inhalers[4]. The stem bark is used in the treatment of burns and skin ailments[218].
Other Uses
Dye;  Herbicide;  Oil;  Resin;  Tannin;  Wood.

A tan or green dye is obtained from the needles[168]. The seeds are a source of soap and lubricating oil[266]. Tannin is obtained from the bark[266]. The needles contain a substance called terpene, this is released when rain washes over the needles and it has a negative effect on the germination of some plants, including wheat[201]. Yields turpentine and tar[74]. Oleo-resins are present in the tissues of all species of pines, but these are often not present in sufficient quantity to make their extraction economically worthwhile[64]. The resins are obtained by tapping the trunk, or by destructive distillation of the wood[4, 64]. In general, trees from warmer areas of distribution give the higher yields[64]. Turpentine consists of an average of 20% of the oleo-resin[64] and is separated by distillation[4, 64]. Turpentine has a wide range of uses including as a solvent for waxes etc, for making varnish, medicinal etc[4]. Rosin is the substance left after turpentine is removed. This is used by violinists on their bows and also in making sealing wax, varnish etc[4]. Pitch can also be obtained from the resin and is used for waterproofing, as a wood preservative etc. Wood. Used for construction and carpentry[74, 81]. The timber is used for construction, bridge building, vehicles, furniture, and wood pulp[266].
Cultivation details
Thrives in a light well-drained sandy or gravelly loam[1, 11]. Dislikes poorly drained moorland soils[1]. Established plants tolerate drought[200]. This species prefers a cool moist climate[81]. Leaf secretions inhibit the germination of seeds, thereby inhibiting the growth of other plants below the tree[18]. This species is sometimes cultivated for its edible seed, there are some named varieties[183]. It is one of the main species utilized for its edible seeds[200], being gathered from cultivated and wild trees. Large quantities of the seeds are exported as a food crop from N. China[183]. Plants bear cones when they are 3.5 metres tall in Cornwall[59]. Trees are slow growing when young[11, 81]. Growth in the south-east of Britain is generally poor but trees in the west and north are healthy and growing well with average annual height increases of around 25cm and girth increases of 3cm or more[185]. Plants are strongly outbreeding, self-fertilized seed usually grows poorly[200]. They hybridize freely with other members of this genus[200]. The cones do not open, seed is extracted by breaking up the soft scales of the cone[200]. Plants in this genus are notably susceptible to honey fungus[200].
Propagation
It is best to sow the seed in individual pots in a cold frame as soon as it is ripe if this is possible otherwise in late winter. A short stratification of 6 weeks at 4°c can improve the germination of stored seed[80]. Plant seedlings out into their permanent positions as soon as possible and protect them for their first winter or two[11]. Plants have a very sparse root system and the sooner they are planted into their permanent positions the better they will grow[K]. Trees should be planted into their permanent positions when they are quite small, between 30 and 90cm[200]. We actually plant them out when they are about 5 - 10cm tall. So long as they are given a very good weed-excluding mulch they establish very well[K]. Larger trees will check badly and hardly put on any growth for several years. This also badly affects root development and wind resistance[200]. Cuttings. This method only works when taken from very young trees less than 10 years old. Use single leaf fascicles with the base of the short shoot. Disbudding the shoots some weeks before taking the cuttings can help. Cuttings are normally slow to grow away[81].
Weed Potential

Right plant wrong place. We are currently updating this section. Please note that a plant may be invasive in one area but may not in your area so it’s worth checking.

Conservation Status
IUCN Red List of Threatened Plants Status :
Related Plants
Latin NameCommon NameEdibility RatingMedicinal Rating
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Carpinus laxiflora 00
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123
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Author
Siebold.&Zucc.
Botanical References
11200266
Links / References
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Subject : Pinus koraiensis  

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