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Crataegus arnoldiana - Sarg.                
                 
Common Name
Family Rosaceae
Synonyms
Known Hazards None known
Habitats Wooded banks[43]. Thickets on a dry bank[82].
Range North-eastern N. America - Massachusetts and Connecticut.
Edibility Rating  
Medicinal Rating  
Care
Fully Hardy Well drained soil Moist Soil Wet Soil Semi-shade Full sun

Summary       

Physical Characteristics       
 icon of manicon of lolypop
Crataegus arnoldiana is a deciduous Tree growing to 7 m (23ft).
It is hardy to zone 5 and is not frost tender. It is in flower in May, and the seeds ripen from Aug to September. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Midges.

USDA hardiness zone : 5-9


Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and can grow in heavy clay soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils and can grow in very alkaline soils.
It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers dry moist or wet soil and can tolerate drought. The plant can tolerates strong winds but not maritime exposure.
It can tolerate atmospheric pollution.

Crataegus arnoldiana


(c) 2010 Ken Fern & Plants For A Future
Crataegus arnoldiana
   
Habitats       
Woodland Garden Secondary; Sunny Edge; Dappled Shade;
Edible Uses                                         
Edible Parts: Fruit.
Edible Uses:

Fruit - raw or cooked[105, 177]. Sub-acid[82]. A delicious flavour, it is sweet with a soft juicy flesh and makes an excellent dessert fruit[K]. It can also be cooked and used in pies, preserves etc and can be dried for later use. The fruit ripens in early September in southern Britain[K]. The fruit is about 2cm in diameter[K]. There are up to five fairly large seeds in the centre of the fruit, these often stick together and so the effect is of eating a cherry-like fruit with a single seed[K].
Medicinal Uses


Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants. Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.

Cardiotonic;  Hypotensive.

Although no specific mention has been seen for this species, the fruits and flowers of many hawthorns are well-known in herbal folk medicine as a heart tonic and modern research has borne out this use. The fruits and flowers have a hypotensive effect as well as acting as a direct and mild heart tonic[222]. They are especially indicated in the treatment of weak heart combined with high blood pressure[222]. Prolonged use is necessary for it to be efficacious[222]. It is normally used either as a tea or a tincture[222].
Other Uses
Wood - heavy, hard, tough, close-grained. Useful for making tool handles, mallets and other small items[82].
Cultivation details                                         
A very easily grown plant, it prefers a well-drained moisture retentive loamy soil but is not at all fussy[11, 200]. Once established, it succeeds in excessively moist soils and also tolerates drought[200]. It grows well on a chalk soil and also in heavy clay soils[200]. A position in full sun is best when plants are being grown for their fruit, they also succeed in semi-shade though fruit yields and quality will be lower in such a position[11, 200]. Most members of this genus succeed in exposed positions, they also tolerate atmospheric pollution[200]. This is a tree with an excellent potential as a fruit crop in Britain. The fruit is of very good quality and is freely borne, whilst the tree is of very easy cultivation and rarely troubled by pests or diseases[K]. A tree at the Hillier Arboretum in September 1993 was about 3 metres tall and 1.5 metres wide. The growth looked somewhat weak and the tree was leaning due to wind rock but it was carrying a heavy crop of fruit[K]. Seedling trees take from 5 - 8 years before they start bearing fruit, though grafted trees will often flower heavily in their third year[K]. The flowers have a foetid smell somewhat like decaying fish. This attracts midges which are the main means of fertilization. When freshly open, the flowers have more pleasant scent with balsamic undertones[245]. A very ornamental plant[1], it is very closely related to C. mollis, and considered to be part of that species by many botanists[229]. Hybridizes freely with other members of this genus[200]. Seedlings should not be left in a seedbed for more than 2 years without being transplanted[11].
                                                                                 
Propagation                                         
Seed - this is best sown as soon as it is ripe in the autumn in a cold frame, some of the seed will germinate in the spring, though most will probably take another year. Stored seed can be very slow and erratic to germinate, it should be warm stratified for 3 months at 15°c and then cold stratified for another 3 months at 4°c[164]. It may still take another 18 months to germinate[78]. Scarifying the seed before stratifying it might reduce this time[80]. Fermenting the seed for a few days in its own pulp may also speed up the germination process[K]. Another possibility is to harvest the seed 'green' (as soon as the embryo has fully developed but before the seedcoat hardens) and sow it immediately in a cold frame. If timed well, it can germinate in the spring[80]. If you are only growing small quantities of plants, it is best to pot up the seedlings as soon as they are large enough to handle and grow them on in individual pots for their first year, planting them out in late spring into nursery beds or their final positions. When growing larger quantities, it might be best to sow them directly outdoors in a seedbed, but with protection from mice and other seed-eating creatures. Grow them on in the seedbed until large enough to plant out, but undercut the roots if they are to be left undisturbed for more than two years.
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Expert comment                                         
 
      
Author                                         
Sarg.
                                                                                 
Botanical References                                         
1143200
                                                                                 
Links / References                                         

  [K] Ken Fern Notes from observations, tasting etc at Plants For A Future and on field trips.

[1]F. Chittendon. RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956
Comprehensive listing of species and how to grow them. Somewhat outdated, it has been replaces in 1992 by a new dictionary (see [200]).
[11]Bean. W. Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement.
A classic with a wealth of information on the plants, but poor on pictures.
[43]Fernald. M. L. Gray's Manual of Botany.
A bit dated but good and concise flora of the eastern part of N. America.
[78]Sheat. W. G. Propagation of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers.
A bit dated but a good book on propagation techniques with specific details for a wide range of plants.
[80]McMillan-Browse. P. Hardy Woody Plants from Seed.
Does not deal with many species but it is very comprehensive on those that it does cover. Not for casual reading.
[82]Sargent. C. S. Manual of the Trees of N. America.
Two volumes, a comprehensive listing of N. American trees though a bit out of date now. Good details on habitats, some details on plant uses. Not really for the casual reader.
[105]Tanaka. T. Tanaka's Cyclopaedia of Edible Plants of the World.
The most comprehensive guide to edible plants I've come across. Only the briefest entry for each species, though, and some of the entries are more than a little dubious. Not for the casual reader.
[164]Bird. R. (Editor) Growing from Seed. Volume 4.
Very readable magazine with lots of information on propagation. A good article on Yuccas, one on Sagebrush (Artemesia spp) and another on Chaerophyllum bulbosum.
[177]Kunkel. G. Plants for Human Consumption.
An excellent book for the dedicated. A comprehensive listing of latin names with a brief list of edible parts.
[200]Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.
[222]Foster. S. & Duke. J. A. A Field Guide to Medicinal Plants. Eastern and Central N. America.
A concise book dealing with almost 500 species. A line drawing of each plant is included plus colour photographs of about 100 species. Very good as a field guide, it only gives brief details about the plants medicinal properties.
[229]Elias. T. The Complete Trees of N. America. Field Guide and Natural History.
A very good concise guide. Gives habitats, good descriptions, maps showing distribution and a few of the uses. It also includes the many shrubs that occasionally reach tree proportions.
[245]Genders. R. Scented Flora of the World.
An excellent, comprehensive book on scented plants giving a few other plant uses and brief cultivation details. There are no illustrations.

Readers comment                                         
 
Elizabeth H.
Dr.Volodymyr Mezhenskyj Mon May 31 20:39:32 2004
Crataegus Cultivars

Dear Sirs,

I work with hawthorns as a new fruit crop. In 2001 the following pomological cultivars are included in the Register of Plant Varieties of the Ukraine: `Ljudmyl` - branches spineless, fruits orange red, 2-2.5 cm in diameter, weighing 4.5 (max 10) g, satisfactory taste, ripen in September; `Shamil` - branches with not numerous spines 3-4 cm in length, fruits red, 2 cm in diameter, weighing 4 (max 6) g, good taste, ripen in September; `Zbigniew` - branches with numerous spines 5-6 cm in length, fruits bright red, 2 cm in diameter, weighing 3,5 (max 5) g, good taste, ripen in August. The promising selection is `Zlat` - branches spineless, fruits yellow, up to 2 cm in diameter, weighing 3(max 4) g, good taste, ripen in September.

Dr.Volodymyr Mezhenskyj, Artemivsk Research Center of Institution of Horticulture, Opytne, Artemivsk, Donetska obl., 84571 UKRAINE

Elizabeth H.
Guillaume Hue Tue Nov 21 2006
Hello ! I read that the crataegus species hybridise freely in the genus, which i understand means that the seeds don't come true to parent. But i also read that they are apomictic, which, there being no sexual fertilisation should mean they naturally come true to type... Is this last characteristic perticular to some species only ? Or is there something i just misunderstood ? I collected a lot of delicious haws with their seeds from multiple trees in botanical gardens and wonder if I will have to graft them all... I am immensely greatful for this incredible website, may it turn the whole planet into a beautiful forest garden ! Guillaume.
Elizabeth H.
Ken Fern, Plants for a Future Wed Nov 22 2006
Over the years, we have collected seed of various Crataegus species with large tasty fruits. Invariably, the fruit produced from the seedlings show distinct differences from the parent tree - the most likely difference is that the fruit will be smaller and less tasty than the parent tree. Having said that, we have also had a number of seedlings that have produced excellent fruits. From what I can gather, there are a number of microspecies that are apomictic, but by no means is the trait to be found in all species. It also seems that apomixy is only found in polyploid species that are thought to result from hybridisation.
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