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Corylus avellana - L.
                 
Common Name Hazel, Common filbert, European Filbert, Harry Lauder's Walking Stick, Corkscrew Hazel, Hazelnut
Family Betulaceae
USDA hardiness 4-8
Known Hazards None known
Habitats Woods and hedgerows, especially on the slopes of hills, often on calcareous soils[7, 17].
Range Europe, including Britain, from Norway to Spain and east to W. Asia.
Edibility Rating  
Other Uses  
Weed Potential No
Medicinal Rating  
Care
Fully Hardy Moist Soil Semi-shade Full sun

Summary
Bloom Color: Brown. Main Bloom Time: Early spring, Late spring, Mid spring. May also be known as: Aveleira, Avelinier, Avellana, Avellano, Coudrier, European Filbert, European Hazel, Haselnuss, Haselstrauch, Hazel, Hazel Nut, Noisetier, Noisetier Commun, Noisetier du Japon, Noisette, Noisettes. Form: Rounded.

Corylus avellana Hazel, Common filbert, European Filbert, Harry Lauder


Corylus avellana Hazel, Common filbert, European Filbert, Harry Lauder
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User:Horst_Frank
   
Physical Characteristics
 icon of manicon of lolypop
Corylus avellana is a deciduous Tree growing to 6 m (19ft) by 3 m (9ft) at a medium rate.
It is hardy to zone (UK) 4 and is not frost tender. It is in flower from Jan to April, and the seeds ripen from Sep to October. The flowers are monoecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but both sexes can be found on the same plant) and are pollinated by Wind.The plant is not self-fertile.
It is noted for attracting wildlife.
Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils and can grow in very acid and very alkaline soils.
It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist soil. The plant can tolerates strong winds but not maritime exposure.

Synonyms

Habitats
Woodland Garden Secondary; Sunny Edge; Dappled Shade; Hedge;
Edible Uses
Edible Parts: Oil;  Oil;  Seed.
Edible Uses: Milk;  Oil;  Oil.

Seed - raw or roasted and used in breads, cakes, biscuits, sweets etc[2, 5, 9, 12, 13, 34, 183]. An excellent nut for raw eating[K]. They can also be liquidized and used as a plant milk[183]. Rich in oil. The seed ripens in mid to late autumn and will probably need to be protected from squirrels[K]. When kept in a cool place, and not shelled, the seed should store for at least 12 months[K]. A clear yellow edible oil is obtained from the seed[7, 9, 183]. It is used in salad dressings, baking etc.
Composition
Figures in grams (g) or miligrams (mg) per 100g of food.
Seed (Dry weight)
  • 650 Calories per 100g
  • Water : 0%
  • Protein: 16g; Fat: 60g; Carbohydrate: 20g; Fibre: 4g; Ash: 2.8g;
  • Minerals - Calcium: 250mg; Phosphorus: 400mg; Iron: 4mg; Magnesium: 0mg; Sodium: 2.1mg; Potassium: 900mg; Zinc: 0mg;
  • Vitamins - A: 0mg; Thiamine (B1): 0.3mg; Riboflavin (B2): 0.5mg; Niacin: 5.3mg; B6: 0mg; C: 6mg;
  • Reference: [ ]
  • Notes:
Medicinal Uses


Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants. Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.

Anthelmintic;  Astringent;  Diaphoretic;  Febrifuge;  Miscellany;  Nutritive;  Stomachic;  Tonic.


The bark, leaves, catkins and fruits are sometimes used medicinally[7]. They are astringent, diaphoretic, febrifuge, nutritive and odontalgic[7]. The seed is stomachic and tonic[240]. The oil has a very gentle but constant and effective action in cases of infection with threadworm or pinworm in babies and young children[7].
Other Uses
Basketry;  Charcoal;  Cosmetic;  Hedge;  Hedge;  Miscellany;  Oil;  Oil;  Plant support;  Polish;  Tannin;  Wood.

The seed contains up to 65% of a non-drying oil, used in paints, cosmetics etc[13, 46, 57, 132]. The whole seed can be used to polish and oil wood[6]. It is very easy to apply and produces a nice finish[K]. The finely ground seeds are used as an ingredient of face masks in cosmetics[7]. Plants can be grown as a tall hedge[29]. They need to be left untrimmed or only lightly trimmed if seed is required[29]. The bark and leaves are a source of tannin[7]. Wood - soft, easy to split, not very durable, beautifully veined. Used for inlay work, small items of furniture, hurdles, wattles, basketry, pea sticks etc[7, 13, 23, 46, 61, 63, 66, 125]. The twigs are used as dowsing rods by water diviners[11]. The wood also yields a good quality charcoal, used by artists[63, 101].
Cultivation details
Landscape Uses:Container, Standard, Specimen. An easily grown plant, it succeeds in most soils, but is in general more productive of seeds when grown on soils of moderate fertility[11, 200]. It does less well in rich heavy soils or poor ones[11, 63]. Does well in a loamy soil[11]. Very suitable for an alkaline soil[11], but it dislikes very acid soils[17]. Succeeds in a pH range 4.5 to 8.5, but prefers a range of 5 to 7[200]. Plants are fairly wind tolerant[1, 11]. A very hardy plant, succeeding in all areas of Britain[200]. The flowers, however, are produced in late winter and early spring and can be damaged by heavy frosts at this time[200]. A parent, together with C. maxima, of many cultivated forms of filberts and cob nuts. There are many named varieties[11]. Plants are self-fertile but a more certain crop is obtained if more than one cultivar is grown[200]. The main difference between cob nuts and filberts is that the husk of a filbert is longer than the seed and often completely encloses it, whilst the husk on a cob nut is shorter than the seed[200]. Squirrels are a major pest of this plant, often decimating the crop of nuts[200]. Often grown as a coppiced shrub in woodlands, the stems have a variety of uses[23, 67, 186]. Members of this genus bear transplanting well and can be easily moved even when relatively large[11]. A food plant for the caterpillars of many lepidoptera species[30]. Special Features:Not North American native, Attractive flowers or blooms.
Propagation
Seed - best sown as soon as it is harvested in autumn in a cold frame[164]. Germinates in late winter or spring. Stored seed should be pre-soaked in warm water for 48 hours and then given 2 weeks warm followed by 3 - 4 months cold stratification[164]. Germinates in 1 - 6 months at 20°c[164]. When large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in a cold frame or sheltered place outdoors for their first winter. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer[K]. Layering in autumn. Easy, it takes about 6 months[78, 200]. Division of suckers in early spring. Very easy, they can be planted out straight into their permanent positions.
Other Names
Found In
Weed Potential

Right plant wrong place. We are currently updating this section. Please note that a plant may be invasive in one area but may not in your area so it’s worth checking.

Conservation Status
IUCN Red List of Threatened Plants Status :
Related Plants
Latin NameCommon NameEdibility RatingMedicinal Rating
Corylus americanaAmerican Hazel31
Corylus avellana pontica 40
Corylus chinensisChinese Hazel20
Corylus colurnaTurkish Hazel, Chinese hazelnut, Turkish Filbert, Turkish Hazel31
Corylus cornutaBeaked Hazel, California hazelnut, Turkish Filbert, Turkish Hazel31
Corylus cornuta californicaCalifornia Hazel30
Corylus fargesii 20
Corylus feroxHimalayan Hazel, Tibetan hazelnut20
Corylus heterophyllaSiberian Filbert21
Corylus jacquemontiiIndian Tree Hazel30
Corylus maximaFilbert, Giant filbert50
Corylus sieboldianaJapanese Hazel30
Corylus sieboldiana mandschurica 30
Corylus tibetica 20
Corylus x colurnoidesTrazel30
Corylus x vilmoriniiChinese Trazel20
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Expert comment
 
Author
L.
Botanical References
1117200
Links / References
For a list of references used on this page please go here
Readers comment
 
Elizabeth H.
R. Byler Thu Oct 12 2006
Can I move the corylus avellana after being planted for several years?
Elizabeth H.
Ken Fern Mon Oct 16 2006
I've moved a 10 year old tree in the past, and it had no problems re-establishing. Very often, though, it is easier to just dig up some of the suckers that are usually produced and transplant those.
Elizabeth H.
robert cochrane Tue Mar 4 2008
this indiginous can also be used for fencing
Elizabeth H.
edward Sun Jan 24 2010
Hazel isn't a big tree and, although it depends what "several years" means, it shouldn't be an issue to transplant a medium sized, established tree. To make your job easier, it would make sense to give it a good prune first - you can coppice right down to the "stool" if you like. This means that the reduced root system will have less tree above ground to support while it re-establishes, increasing the chance of survival.

Ashridge Trees - Hazel Trees More about Hazel

jonathan H.
May 7 2012 12:00AM
A useful boundary plant on my allotment
Richard B.
Matrix showing cross-pollination of a number of popular Corylus avellana cultivars. Sep 14 2012 12:00AM
Orange Pippin Fruit Trees - Hazel pollination
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Subject : Corylus avellana  

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