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Amelanchier canadensis - (L.)Medik.                
                 
Common Name Juneberry, Canadian serviceberry, Serviceberry Downy, Shadblow, Shadbush, Serviceberry
Family Rosaceae
Synonyms A. oblongifolia. Mespilus canadensis.
Known Hazards None known
Habitats Swamps, low ground, woods and thickets[43]. Grows in woods and hedgerows in Britain[17].
Range Eastern N. America - Nova Scotia to Ontario, south to Florida. Naturalized in Britain[17].
Edibility Rating  
Medicinal Rating  
Care
Fully Hardy Moist Soil Semi-shade Full sun

Summary       
Bloom Color: White. Main Bloom Time: Early spring, Late spring, Mid spring. Form: Upright or erect.

Physical Characteristics       
 icon of manicon of shrub
Amelanchier canadensis is a deciduous Shrub growing to 6 m (19ft) by 3 m (9ft) at a medium rate.
It is hardy to zone 4 and is not frost tender. It is in flower in April, and the seeds ripen in July. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees.The plant is self-fertile.


USDA hardiness zone : 4-7


Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and can grow in heavy clay soil. Suitable pH: acid and neutral soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist soil. The plant can tolerates strong winds but not maritime exposure.

Amelanchier canadensis Juneberry, Canadian serviceberry, Serviceberry Downy, Shadblow, Shadbush, Serviceberry


(c) 2010 Ken Fern & Plants For A Future
Amelanchier canadensis Juneberry, Canadian serviceberry, Serviceberry Downy, Shadblow, Shadbush, Serviceberry
   
Habitats       
Woodland Garden Secondary; Sunny Edge; Dappled Shade; Hedge;
Edible Uses                                         
Edible Parts: Fruit.
Edible Uses:

Edible fruit - raw or cooked[3, 55, 101, 159]. The fruit contains a few small seeds at the centre, it has a sweet flavour with a hint of apple[1, 2]. It can be eaten out of hand, used in pies, preserves etc or dried and used like raisins[183]. We have found the fruit to be of variable quality, with some forms having a distinct bitterness in the flavour whilst others are sweet, juicy and delicious[K]. When the fruit is thoroughly cooked in puddings or pies the seed imparts an almond flavour to the food[183]. The fruit is rich in iron and copper[226]. It is about 10mm in diameter[200]. Trees can yield 7 to 15 tonnes per hectare[160].
Medicinal Uses


Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants. Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.

Anthelmintic;  Disinfectant;  Women's complaints.

A tea made from the root bark (mixed with other unspecified herbs) was used as a tonic in the treatment of excessive menstrual bleeding and also to treat diarrhoea[222, 257]. A bath of the bark tea was used on children with worms[222, 257]. An infusion of the root was used to prevent miscarriage after an injury[257]. A compound concoction of the inner bark was used as a disinfectant wash[257].
Other Uses
Disinfectant;  Hedge;  Hedge;  Rootstock;  Shelterbelt;  Wood.

This species can be used as a dwarfing rootstock for Malus spp. (the apples) and Pyrus spp. (the pears)[160]. Plants can be grown as an informal hedge[200]. Any trimming is best done after flowering[200]. A fairly wind-tolerant species, it can be used to give protection from the wind as part of a mixed shelterbelt[200]. Wood - hard, strong, close grained. Used for tool handles, small implements etc[46, 61].
Cultivation details                                         
Landscape Uses:Specimen, Woodland garden. Prefers a rich loamy soil in a sunny position or semi-shade[1, 200] but thrives in any soil that is not water-logged, too dry or poor[11], though it is more wet-tolerant than other members of this genus[11]. Grows well in heavy clay soils. Prefers an acid soil[17, 43]. Trees produce more and better quality fruits better when growing in a sunny position[1]. All members of this genus have edible fruits and, whilst this is dry and uninteresting in some species, in many others it is sweet and juicy. Many of the species have potential for use in the garden as edible ornamentals. The main draw-back to this genus is that birds adore the fruit and will often completely strip a tree before it is fully ripe[K]. There is at least one named variety of this species with superior fruits. 'Prince William' is a large multi-stemmed shrub to 3 metres tall and 2 metres across[183, 200]. It crops heavily and its good quality fruit is about 12mm in diameter[183]. Considerable confusion has existed between this species and A. arborea, A. laevis and A. lamarckii, see [11] for the most recent (1991) classification. Hybridizes freely with other members of this genus[200]. Grafting onto seedlings of A. lamarckii or Sorbus aucuparia is sometimes practised in order to avoid the potential problem of hybridizing[1]. Special Features:Attracts birds, North American native, Attracts butterflies, Blooms are very showy.
                                                                                 
Propagation                                         
Seed - it is best harvested 'green', when the seed is fully formed but before the seed coat has hardened, and then sown immediately in pots outdoors or in a cold frame. If stored seed is obtained early enough in the autumn, it can be given 4 weeks warm stratification before being left out in the winter and it should then germinate in the spring. Otherwise seed can be very slow to germinate, perhaps taking 18 months or more. When large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in a sheltered outdoor position, planting them out once they are 20cm or more tall. If there is sufficient seed it is best to sow it thinly in an outdoor seedbed[78, 80]. Grow the seedlings on for two years in the seedbed before planting them out into their permanent positions during the winter. Layering in spring - takes 18 months[78]. Division of suckers in late winter. The suckers need to have been growing for 2 years before you dig them up, otherwise they will not have formed roots. They can be planted out straight into their permanent positions if required.
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Expert comment                                         
 
      
Author                                         
(L.)Medik.
                                                                                 
Botanical References                                         
1143200
                                                                                 
Links / References                                         

  [K] Ken Fern Notes from observations, tasting etc at Plants For A Future and on field trips.

[1]F. Chittendon. RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956
Comprehensive listing of species and how to grow them. Somewhat outdated, it has been replaces in 1992 by a new dictionary (see [200]).
[2]Hedrick. U. P. Sturtevant's Edible Plants of the World.
Lots of entries, quite a lot of information in most entries and references.
[3]Simmons. A. E. Growing Unusual Fruit.
A very readable book with information on about 100 species that can be grown in Britain (some in greenhouses) and details on how to grow and use them.
[11]Bean. W. Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement.
A classic with a wealth of information on the plants, but poor on pictures.
[17]Clapham, Tootin and Warburg. Flora of the British Isles.
A very comprehensive flora, the standard reference book but it has no pictures.
[43]Fernald. M. L. Gray's Manual of Botany.
A bit dated but good and concise flora of the eastern part of N. America.
[46]Uphof. J. C. Th. Dictionary of Economic Plants.
An excellent and very comprehensive guide but it only gives very short descriptions of the uses without any details of how to utilize the plants. Not for the casual reader.
[55]Harris. B. C. Eat the Weeds.
Interesting reading.
[61]Usher. G. A Dictionary of Plants Used by Man.
Forget the sexist title, this is one of the best books on the subject. Lists a very extensive range of useful plants from around the world with very brief details of the uses. Not for the casual reader.
[78]Sheat. W. G. Propagation of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers.
A bit dated but a good book on propagation techniques with specific details for a wide range of plants.
[80]McMillan-Browse. P. Hardy Woody Plants from Seed.
Does not deal with many species but it is very comprehensive on those that it does cover. Not for casual reading.
[101]Turner. N. J. and Szczawinski. A. Edible Wild Fruits and Nuts of Canada.
A very readable guide to some wild foods of Canada.
[159]McPherson. A. and S. Wild Food Plants of Indiana.
A nice pocket guide to this region of America.
[160]Natural Food Institute, Wonder Crops. 1987.
Fascinating reading, this is an annual publication. Some reports do seem somewhat exaggerated though.
[183]Facciola. S. Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants.
Excellent. Contains a very wide range of conventional and unconventional food plants (including tropical) and where they can be obtained (mainly N. American nurseries but also research institutes and a lot of other nurseries from around the world.
[200]Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.
[222]Foster. S. & Duke. J. A. A Field Guide to Medicinal Plants. Eastern and Central N. America.
A concise book dealing with almost 500 species. A line drawing of each plant is included plus colour photographs of about 100 species. Very good as a field guide, it only gives brief details about the plants medicinal properties.
[226]Lauriault. J. Identification Guide to the Trees of Canada
Very good on identification for non-experts, the book also has a lot of information on plant uses.
[257]Moerman. D. Native American Ethnobotany
Very comprehensive but terse guide to the native uses of plants. Excellent bibliography, fully referenced to each plant, giving a pathway to further information. Not for the casual reader.

Readers comment                                         
 
Elizabeth H.
Jan Kola Mon Dec 04 23:42:43 2000
Juneberry is more frequently called saskatoonberry. There was project long ago, funded by Canada government, based on the breeding works of Canadian gardeners, I forgot the name. The project failed, for in Canada hand work is expensive. Saskatoonberry needs a lot of hand work. They carried out the project properly, they even built a factory for the preservation of the berries to make jellies and other products. But when it failed, there are now indians sleeping in the factory. I think it was in Alberta, Bevearlodge. Research station there now works with different plants.

But Canadian farmers soon recognized, that it is good for them to produce it, though they probably they earn more money on selling plants, than on fruits.

The fruit of A. lamarckii is so tasty, that everybody has to love it only to get used to it. They will soon love also another species fruit, though the taste of some species is a litle strange.

Don't forget, that Amelanchier is not only a Northern America plant, but it grows also in Russia, Caucasus, Crete, Northern Africa. Especially in Russia it is called IRGA and it is frequented between gardeners.

Elizabeth H.
Rich Wed Dec 20 11:01:57 2000
Two intresting sites for Amelanchier:

Native Fruit Development Program

http://www.saskatoonfarm.com/

If people want to get in contact with Jan Koan who wrote the previous comment they can get in touch with him at: Jan Kola, Jasminova 1616, Ostrava 70800, Czech Republik, Tel. 69 6951114

Elizabeth H.
Fri May 11 17:31:46 2001
You want pictures of juneberries, well here you go...

dugan garden center Rain Tree Alabama Forest Info iastate uni

that should be enough :) I got some small ones planted, but they are to young to fruit yet. They could also be chokecherries, but not sure.

Look at this to be sure:

http://wcd.saultc.on.ca:8900/dendro/webpages/servicegen.html

Elizabeth H.
Pam Tue Jan 6 2009
When I bought this, it was called "Serviceberry" var. "Autumn brilliance", and the berries were delicious. Very pretty!
SarahLynn M.
Jul 19 2012 12:00AM
NOTE: I do believe that the "Serviceberry" var. "Autumn brilliance" which PAM wrote of is actually a combination of A. laevis x A. grandiflora. I have two of those from a nursery nearby. I just acquired a real A. canadensis, or Juneberry, from Useful plants nursery. I went through greater lengths to get it because I think it has much, much tastier berries! My friend had three Autumn Brilliance serviceberries and one juneberry all growing in the same rich front yard, and I always preferred A. canadensis (juneberry) fruits.
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