We have over 100,000 visitors each month, but in the whole of 2013 less than £1,000 was raised from donations. We rely on donations and cannot continue to maintain our database and website unless this increases considerably in 2014. Please make a donation today. More information on our financial position >>>
Search Page Content
   Bookmark and Share
   
    By donating to PFAF, you can help support and expand our activities
    Plant Suppliers: Click here for a List

Actinidia deliciosa - (A.Chev.)C.F.Liang.& A.R.Ferguson.                
                 
Common Name Kiwi Fruit
Family Actinidiaceae
Synonyms A. chinensis. Hort. non Planch.
Known Hazards None known
Habitats Derived in cultivation from A. chinensis, it is not known in a truly wild situation.
Range E. Asia - China
Edibility Rating  
Medicinal Rating  
Care
Fully Hardy Moist Soil Semi-shade Full sun

Summary       

Physical Characteristics       
 icon of manicon of climber
Actinidia deliciosa is a deciduous Climber growing to 9 m (29ft 6in) at a medium rate.
It is hardy to zone (UK) 7 and is not frost tender. It is in flower from Jul to August, and the seeds ripen from Oct to December. The flowers are dioecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but only one sex is to be found on any one plant so both male and female plants must be grown if seed is required) and are pollinated by Bees, insects.The plant is not self-fertile.


USDA hardiness zone : Coming soon


Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils. Suitable pH: acid soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist soil.

Actinidia deliciosa Kiwi Fruit


(c) ken Fern, Plants For A Future 2010
Actinidia deliciosa Kiwi Fruit
(c) ken Fern, Plants For A Future 2010
   
Habitats       
Woodland Garden Sunny Edge; Dappled Shade; South Wall. By. West Wall. By.
Edible Uses                                         
Edible Parts: Fruit;  Leaves.
Edible Uses:

Fruit - raw or cooked. A delicious flavour[1, 2, 3, 11, 105], the fruit can be up to 8cm long, it is very juicy when fully ripe and has a refreshing, acid flavour[K]. It contains a number of small seeds, but these are easily eaten with the fruit[K]. Rich in vitamin C[183]. Fresh fruits contain 100 - 420mg vitamin C per 100g and 8 - 14% carbohydrate[218]. Acidity is 1 - 2%, mainly citric acid[218]. The fruit ripens in November and can store for 3 - 4 months[132]. Yields of 8 - 30 tonnes per hectare are possible[218]. Leaves are a famine food[179].
Medicinal Uses


Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants. Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.

Diuretic;  Febrifuge;  Sedative.

The fruits, stems and roots are diuretic, febrifuge and sedative[147]. They are used in the treatment of stones in the urinary tract, rheumatoid arthralgia, cancers of the liver and oesophagus[147].
Other Uses
Paper;  Pencil.

Paper is made from the bark[178]. If the bark is removed in one piece from near the root and placed in hot ashes, it becomes very hard and can be used as a tube for a pencil[178].
Cultivation details                                         
Prefers a sound loamy acid soil, it dislikes alkaline soils and becomes chlorotic at pH 6 or higher[11]. Tolerates a pH in the range 5.5 to 7.3. Succeeds in semi-shade but full sun is best for fruit production[3, 126, 200]. Prefers a sheltered position[200]. Does well when grown into trees[K]. Plants requires a 6 - 8 month frost-free growing season[160, 200]. They are hardy to about -12°c when fully dormant but young growth is very subject to damage by late frosts, being killed back at -2°c[160, 200]. Plants also require a winter chilling of 600 - 1100 hours below 7°c and a long warm summer to ripen the fruit[200]. Plants fruit on second year wood or on fruit spurs produced on older wood[126], any pruning is best carried out in the winter[219]. The flowers are sweetly scented[245]. A very ornamental plant[1], it is widely cultivated in warm temperate zones for its edible fruit, there are many named varieties[183, 200]. The fruit can store for up to 9 months at 0°c with a relative humidity of 90%, but under domestic conditions 4 - 6 weeks is optimal[200]. This is a rampant climbing plant, supporting itself by twining around branches etc[200]. Plants have been seen with very good crops of fruit at the Hillier Arboretum in Hampshire in several autumns. These plants had outgrown their planned supports and had climbed 15 metres into neighbouring trees. The main problem with them would be how to harvest the fruit[K]. The female 'Heywood' is the most commonly cultivated form in Britain (1993), its fruits store well but it tends to flower late and there can be problems with pollination[126]. The cultivar 'Blake' is said to be fast cropping and self-fertile[200]. The male 'Tomurii' is free-flowering and disease-resistant[202]. Plants in this genus are notably resistant to honey fungus[200]. Plants are usually dioecious, but hermaphrodite forms are known. However, the fruit quality and yield of these hermaphrodite forms is usually inferior[11]. Male and female plants must usually be grown if seed is required, one male to five or six females is normally adequate.
                                                                                 
Propagation                                         
Seed - sow spring in a greenhouse[133]. It is probably best if the seed is given 3 months stratification[113], either sow it in a cold frame as soon as it is ripe in November or as soon as it is received. Fresh seed germinates in 2 - 3 months at 10°c, stored seed can take longer[133]. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in light shade in the greenhouse for at least their first winter. When the plants are 30cm or more tall, plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts[K]. Most seedlings are male[126]. The seedlings are subject to damping off, they must be kept well ventilated[113]. Cuttings of softwood as soon as ready in spring in a frame[K]. Cuttings of half-ripe wood, July/August in a frame. Very high percentage[113]. Cuttings of ripe wood, October/November in a frame.
Plant Suppliers: Click here for a List

      You can download this page as a PDF

Expert comment                                         
 
      
Author                                         
(A.Chev.)C.F.Liang.& A.R.Ferguson.
                                                                                 
Botanical References                                         
11200
                                                                                 
Links / References                                         

  [K] Ken Fern Notes from observations, tasting etc at Plants For A Future and on field trips.

[1]F. Chittendon. RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956
Comprehensive listing of species and how to grow them. Somewhat outdated, it has been replaces in 1992 by a new dictionary (see [200]).
[2]Hedrick. U. P. Sturtevant's Edible Plants of the World.
Lots of entries, quite a lot of information in most entries and references.
[3]Simmons. A. E. Growing Unusual Fruit.
A very readable book with information on about 100 species that can be grown in Britain (some in greenhouses) and details on how to grow and use them.
[11]Bean. W. Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement.
A classic with a wealth of information on the plants, but poor on pictures.
[105]Tanaka. T. Tanaka's Cyclopaedia of Edible Plants of the World.
The most comprehensive guide to edible plants I've come across. Only the briefest entry for each species, though, and some of the entries are more than a little dubious. Not for the casual reader.
[113]Dirr. M. A. and Heuser. M. W. The Reference Manual of Woody Plant Propagation.
A very detailed book on propagating trees. Not for the casual reader.
[126]? The Plantsman. Vol. 6. 1984 - 1985.
Excerpts from the periodical giving cultivation details and other notes on some of the useful plants including Actinidia and Wisteria species.
[132]Bianchini. F., Corbetta. F. and Pistoia. M. Fruits of the Earth.
Lovely pictures, a very readable book.
[133]Rice. G. (Editor) Growing from Seed. Volume 1.
Very readable magazine with lots of information on propagation.
[147]? A Barefoot Doctors Manual.
A very readable herbal from China, combining some modern methods with traditional chinese methods.
[160]Natural Food Institute, Wonder Crops. 1987.
Fascinating reading, this is an annual publication. Some reports do seem somewhat exaggerated though.
[178]Stuart. Rev. G. A. Chinese Materia Medica.
A translation of an ancient Chinese herbal. Fascinating.
[179]Reid. B. E. Famine Foods of the Chiu-Huang Pen-ts'ao.
A translation of an ancient Chinese book on edible wild foods. Fascinating.
[183]Facciola. S. Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants.
Excellent. Contains a very wide range of conventional and unconventional food plants (including tropical) and where they can be obtained (mainly N. American nurseries but also research institutes and a lot of other nurseries from around the world.
[200]Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.
[202]Davis. B. Climbers and Wall Shrubs.
Contains information on 2,000 species and cultivars, giving details of cultivation requirements. The text is terse but informative.
[218]Duke. J. A. and Ayensu. E. S. Medicinal Plants of China
Details of over 1,200 medicinal plants of China and brief details of their uses. Often includes an analysis, or at least a list of constituents. Heavy going if you are not into the subject.
[219]Grey-Wilson. C. & Matthews. V. Gardening on Walls
A nice little book about plants for growing against walls and a small section on plants that can grow in walls.
[245]Genders. R. Scented Flora of the World.
An excellent, comprehensive book on scented plants giving a few other plant uses and brief cultivation details. There are no illustrations.

Readers comment                                         
 
Elizabeth H.
kris Mon Jul 28 20:24:57 2003
This is good information,thank you. Where can I get information about the Guanabano plant used for cancer treatment? Please answer to krispilar1@aol.com.
Elizabeth H.
Sat Aug 5 2006
will it grow in the northern US
Elizabeth H.
Kurt Liebezeit Thu Mar 15 2007
Young, tender kiwi plants are more susceptible to frost damage than an older kiwi plant. A late spring frost is the most dangerous for an older plant; you probably don't need to protect the main stem, but wrap the most tender shoots in a blanket or other thermal covering when a late frost is likely.
Elizabeth H.
Thu May 24 2007
I grew my kiwi vine from a slice of the fruit purchased at a supermarket. It is really rampant , grpwomg up into a neighbouring maple tree and spreading over into my next door neighbours garden.This year it is full of flower buds. We have had fruit from it for several years; not too ripe! This year the vines are smothered in bud. I am hoping for really delecious fruit!Mrs/M.E.Wingrovw. Thursday 24th May 2007.
Elizabeth H.
Chris Taylor Wed Oct 17 2007
best variety to grow as building cover, all year round,fruit not necessary, in SE England? Clay soil, sun and shade, good ground prep intended.Any varieties wihich keep leafs longer?
Elizabeth H.
Marlene Prescott Tue Jul 8 2008
I have one small Actinidia deliciosa planted in a somewhat shady location. As of this date, I don't have a proper trellis for it to grow on. I also have another kiwi which I planted about 12 years ago. It lost its mate when it was very young to frost. Know I don't know what sex it is. I think it is a male but I am only guessing. The actinidia deliciosa I recently planted has a tag on it stating that it is a female. I am wondering if the earlier one is a male whether I will ever get them to mate and bear fruit. I suppose it is best if I go out and purchase another Actinidia deliciosa. How close together do the plants need to be? I am on Vancouver Island. Can you suggest a nursery where I might get the Saanichton variety. Thank you for your assistance. Marlene
Elizabeth H.
Rebecca Sat Feb 21 2009
This is great overview on US varietals and cultivation: extension.oregonstate.edu/catalog/pdf/pnw/pnw507.pdf
Elizabeth H.
Raffi Wed Jul 22 2009

Plants.am gardening wiki: Kiwi cultivation page

Elizabeth H.
d. mangan Tue Oct 20 2009
my neighbour has a actinidia growing up against my wall could this cause structial damage or damp?
QR Code

What's this?

This is a QR code (short for Quick Response) which gives fast-track access to our website pages. QR Codes are barcodes that can be read by mobile phone (smartphone) cameras. This QR Code is unique to this page. All plant pages have their own unique code. For more information about QR Codes click here.

1. Copy and print the QR code to a plant label, poster, book, website, magazines, newspaper etc and even t-shirts.
2. Smartphone users scan the QR Code which automatically takes them to the webpage the QR Code came from.
3. Smartphone users quickly have information on a plant directly for the pfaf.org website on their phone.
Rate This Plant                                         
Please rate this plants for how successful you have found it to be. You will need to be logged in to do this. Our intention is not to create a list of 'popular' plants but rather to highlight plants that may be rare and unusual and that have been found to be useful by website users. This hopefully will encourage more people to use plants that they possibly would not have considered before.
     
                                                                                 
Add a comment/link                                         

If you have important information about this plant that may help other users please add a comment or link below. Only comments or links that are felt to be directly relevant to a plant will be included. If you think a comment/link or information contained on this page is inaccurate or misleading we would welcome your feedback at admin@pfaf.org. If you have questions about a plant please use the Forum on this website as we do not have the resources to answer questions ourselves.

* Please note: the comments by website users are not necessarily those held by PFAF and may give misleading or inaccurate information.

Subject : Actinidia deliciosa  
             

Links To add a link to another website with useful info add the details here
Name of Site
URL of Site
Details