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Abies nordmanniana - (Stev.)Spach.                
                 
Common Name Caucasian Fir, Christmas Tree Fir, Nordmann
Family Pinaceae
Synonyms
Known Hazards None known
Habitats Forests in Turkey, often with Picea spp. and often on northern slopes at elevations around 1200 - 2000 metres[93].
Range W. Asia - Caucasus
Edibility Rating  
Medicinal Rating  
Care
Fully Hardy Moist Soil Full shade Semi-shade Full sun

Summary       
Form: Columnar, Upright or erect.

Physical Characteristics       
 icon of manicon of cone
Abies nordmanniana is an evergreen Tree growing to 50 m (164ft) by 5 m (16ft) at a medium rate.
It is hardy to zone (UK) 4. It is in leaf 12-Jan, and the seeds ripen in October. The flowers are monoecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but both sexes can be found on the same plant) and are pollinated by Wind.

USDA hardiness zone : 4-6


Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and can grow in heavy clay soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in full shade (deep woodland) semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist soil.

Abies nordmanniana Caucasian Fir, Christmas Tree Fir, Nordmann


Abies nordmanniana Caucasian Fir, Christmas Tree Fir, Nordmann
   
Habitats       
Woodland Garden Canopy;
Edible Uses                                         
None known
Medicinal Uses
Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants. Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.



None known
Other Uses
Wood.

Wood - light, soft, not very durable, poor quality. Used for construction, pulp etc[61].
Cultivation details                                         
Landscape Uses:Christmas tree, Pest tolerant, Screen, Specimen. Prefers a good moist but not water-logged soil[1]. Grows well in heavy clay soils. Plants are very shade tolerant, especially when young, but growth is slower in dense shade[81]. Intolerant of atmospheric pollution[1]. Prefers slightly acid conditions down to a pH of about 5[200], but it tolerates more alkaline conditions than many other members of the genus[11]. Prefers growing on a north-facing slope and in areas with cool wet summers[11]. A very ornamental tree[1], it can hold its leaves for up to 26 years[81]. This species grows well in most parts of Britain but it is very susceptible to damage by aphis in some parts of the country[11]. It grows best in the Perthshire valleys of Scotland and the far west of Britain[11]. Trees grow quickly when young, a 60cm increase within 2 years of planting out is not uncommon[185]. It rarely exceeds this rate as it gets older though[185]. Trees should be planted into their permanent positions when they are quite small, between 30 and 90cm in height. Larger trees will check badly and hardly put on any growth for several years. This also badly affects root development and wind resistance[200]. Cultivated for timber in C. Europe[50]. It is also sometimes grown as a 'Christmas tree'[200]. Plants are strongly outbreeding, self-fertilized seed usually grows poorly[200]. They hybridize freely with other members of this genus[200]. Special Features:Not North American native, There are no flowers or blooms.
                                                                                 
Propagation                                         
Seed - sow early February in a greenhouse or outdoors in March[78]. Germination is often poor, usually taking about 6 - 8 weeks[78]. Stratification is said to produce a more even germination so it is probably best to sow the seed in a cold frame as soon as it is ripe in the autumn[80, 113]. The seed remains viable for up to 5 years if it is well stored[113]. When large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on for at least their first winter in pots. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts. Alternatively, if you have sufficient seed, it is possible to sow in an outdoor seedbed. One report says that it is best to grow the seedlings on in the shade at a density of about 550 plants per square metre[78] whilst another report says that they are best grown on in a sunny position[80].
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Expert comment                                         
 
      
Author                                         
(Stev.)Spach.
                                                                                 
Botanical References                                         
1193200
                                                                                 
Links / References                                         

[1]F. Chittendon. RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956
Comprehensive listing of species and how to grow them. Somewhat outdated, it has been replaces in 1992 by a new dictionary (see [200]).
[11]Bean. W. Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement.
A classic with a wealth of information on the plants, but poor on pictures.
[50]? Flora Europaea
An immense work in 6 volumes (including the index). The standard reference flora for europe, it is very terse though and with very little extra information. Not for the casual reader.
[61]Usher. G. A Dictionary of Plants Used by Man.
Forget the sexist title, this is one of the best books on the subject. Lists a very extensive range of useful plants from around the world with very brief details of the uses. Not for the casual reader.
[78]Sheat. W. G. Propagation of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers.
A bit dated but a good book on propagation techniques with specific details for a wide range of plants.
[80]McMillan-Browse. P. Hardy Woody Plants from Seed.
Does not deal with many species but it is very comprehensive on those that it does cover. Not for casual reading.
[81]Rushforth. K. Conifers.
Deals with conifers that can be grown outdoors in Britain. Good notes on cultivation and a few bits about plant uses.
[93]Davis. P. H. Flora of Turkey.
Not for the casual reader, this is an immense work in many volumes. Some details of plant uses and habitats.
[113]Dirr. M. A. and Heuser. M. W. The Reference Manual of Woody Plant Propagation.
A very detailed book on propagating trees. Not for the casual reader.
[185]Mitchell. A. F. Conifers in the British Isles.
A bit out of date (first published in 1972), but an excellent guide to how well the various species of conifers grow in Britain giving locations of trees.
[200]Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.

Readers comment                                         
 
Elizabeth H.
Sopho Sat Jul 22 2006
Dear Sir or Madam, I would like to apply you from the Republic of Georgia and inform you about our offer. I am the representative of the LTD "Tlugi-98". We collect the Abies Nordmanniana cones in mountaneous parts of Georgia and provide the seeds through the special instruments. Evergreen tree is to 61 m tall, densely branched from ground up, branches regularly arranged. Bark grey-brown, smooth with resin blisters until very old. Needles dense, directed forward, 20-30 mm long, 2-2.5 mm wide, apex rounded and notched, lustrous dark green above, 2 white stomatal bands below, buds not resinous. Cones 15 cm long and 5 cm wide, cylindrical. The typical subspecies occurs in Caucasia (Abkhazia and Georgia) and in the mountains of Turkey. It grows in mountains around the Black Sea at 900-2100 m, on silicic soils. The climate is continental and wet, with annual precipitation of 1000-3000 mm. On the basis of STATE STANDARD 14161-86 the seeds we collect are acknowledged by the forest seed station (laboratory) conditioned and they belong to the FIBSI class. The price per kilo of seed starts from 45 euro to 60 euro depending on its fitness. We are looking for the partners who will purchase our product. Georgia has fantastic nature with vareous woods and different kind of plants. Our aim is to promote our country's silvers-firs and distribute the cones and seeds to foreign coutries. In case of interest we will provide you the list of foreign companies who have purchased our product. Could you be so kind to provide the information concerning the offer in case of interest. We are looking for your reply at your earliest convenience, Best Regards, Sopho Chichinadze Representative of LTD “Tlugi-98” Tel:877 78 44 22 E:mail:sopoc@hotmail.com
Elizabeth H.
natia Sun Jan 11 2009
hello we have a plantation of abies nordmaniana an if you'll take an interest we can provide you with this product,under favourable conditions.or if can can contact me and help me to comunicate with people who are interested to buy this product. email:natia_janadze@yahoo.com
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