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Abies concolor - (Gordon.&Glend.)Lindl. ex Hildebrand.                
                 
Common Name Colorado Fir, White fir
Family Pinaceae
Synonyms Picea concolor.
Known Hazards None known
Habitats Found on a wide range of soils, but preferring moist soils with a humid climate and a long winter from 700 metres to 3,400 metres[229].
Range South-western N. America - Oregon to California, to Arizona and New Mexico.
Edibility Rating  
Medicinal Rating  
Care
Fully Hardy Well drained soil Moist Soil Full shade Semi-shade Full sun

Summary       
Form: Columnar.

Physical Characteristics       
 icon of manicon of cone
Abies concolor is an evergreen Tree growing to 45 m (147ft) by 8 m (26ft) at a fast rate.
It is hardy to zone (UK) 4 and is not frost tender. It is in leaf 12-Jan It is in flower in April, and the seeds ripen from Sep to October. The flowers are monoecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but both sexes can be found on the same plant) and are pollinated by Wind.

USDA hardiness zone : 3-7


Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and can grow in heavy clay and nutritionally poor soils. Suitable pH: acid and neutral soils. It can grow in full shade (deep woodland) semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers dry or moist soil.

Abies concolor Colorado Fir, White fir


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/User_talk:Wsiegmund
Abies concolor Colorado Fir, White fir
   
Habitats       
Woodland Garden Canopy;
Edible Uses                                         
None known
Medicinal Uses


Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants. Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.

Antirheumatic;  Pectoral;  Poultice;  TB.

The pitch from the trunk has been used as an antiseptic poultice for cuts, wounds etc[257]. An infusion of the pitch, or the bark, has been used in the treatment of TB[257] An infusion of the foliage has been used in a bath for relieving rheumatism[257]. An infusion of the pitch and leaves has been used in the treatment of pulmonary complaints[257].
Other Uses
Dye;  Wood.

A tan coloured dye can be obtained from the bark[257]. Wood - very light, not strong, coarse grained, soft, not durable. Used mainly for pulp, cases etc[46, 61, 82]. It is sometimes used in framing small houses but is not strong enough to be used in larger buildings[229]. The wood lacks a distinctive odour and so does not impart a flavour to items stored in it. Thus it can be used for making tubs for storing food items[229].
Cultivation details                                         
Landscape Uses:Christmas tree, Firewood, Pest tolerant, Screen, Specimen. Prefers a good moist but not water-logged soil[1]. Grows well in heavy clay soils. Plants are very shade tolerant but growth is slower in dense shade[81]. Intolerant of atmospheric pollution[1]. Prefers slightly acid conditions down to a pH of about 5[200]. Prefers growing on a north-facing slope[200]. Trees succeed on poor dry sites in the wild[155]. Trees are shallow rooted and therefore liable to be wind-blown in exposed sites[155]. Trees grow almost as well in S. Britain as they do in cooler areas of the country[11]. They are at their best in the Perthshire valleys of Scotland and in N.E. England, trees in the south and east of the country tend to be thin in the crown and soon lose their shape. Trees in the west grow better but also lose their shape after a while[11, 185]. New growth is from mid-May to July and trees are virtually never damaged by late frosts or aphis[1, 185]. Most trees of this species that are grown in Britain are in fact the sub-species A. concolor lowiana. (Gordon.)Lemmon. This form tends to grow better in Britain than the type. There are 2 basic forms of this sub-species, those from the north of the range are vigorous in height growth whilst the southern form is vigorous in girth growth[185]. They both have a potential for forestry use in Britain[185]. Trees should be planted into their permanent positions when they are quite small, between 30 and 90cm in height. Larger trees will check badly and hardly put on any growth for several years. This also badly affects root development and wind resistance[200]. Plants are strongly outbreeding, self-fertilized seed usually grows poorly[200]. They hybridize freely with other members of this genus[200]. A very ornamental tree[1]. The crushed leaves have a strong lemony scent[185]. Special Features:Attractive foliage, North American native, Fragrant foliage, There are no flowers or blooms.
                                                                                 
Propagation                                         
Seed - sow early February in a greenhouse or outdoors in March[78]. Germination is often poor, usually taking about 6 - 8 weeks[78]. Stratification is said to produce a more even germination so it is probably best to sow the seed in a cold frame as soon as it is ripe in the autumn[80, 113]. The seed remains viable for up to 5 years if it is well stored[113]. When large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on for at least their first winter in pots. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts. Alternatively, if you have sufficient seed, it is possible to sow in an outdoor seedbed. One report says that it is best to grow the seedlings on in the shade at a density of about 550 plants per square metre[78] whilst another report says that they are best grown on in a sunny position[80].
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Expert comment                                         
 
      
Author                                         
(Gordon.&Glend.)Lindl. ex Hildebrand.
                                                                                 
Botanical References                                         
1160200
                                                                                 
Links / References                                         

[1]F. Chittendon. RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956
Comprehensive listing of species and how to grow them. Somewhat outdated, it has been replaces in 1992 by a new dictionary (see [200]).
[11]Bean. W. Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement.
A classic with a wealth of information on the plants, but poor on pictures.
[46]Uphof. J. C. Th. Dictionary of Economic Plants.
An excellent and very comprehensive guide but it only gives very short descriptions of the uses without any details of how to utilize the plants. Not for the casual reader.
[61]Usher. G. A Dictionary of Plants Used by Man.
Forget the sexist title, this is one of the best books on the subject. Lists a very extensive range of useful plants from around the world with very brief details of the uses. Not for the casual reader.
[78]Sheat. W. G. Propagation of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers.
A bit dated but a good book on propagation techniques with specific details for a wide range of plants.
[80]McMillan-Browse. P. Hardy Woody Plants from Seed.
Does not deal with many species but it is very comprehensive on those that it does cover. Not for casual reading.
[81]Rushforth. K. Conifers.
Deals with conifers that can be grown outdoors in Britain. Good notes on cultivation and a few bits about plant uses.
[82]Sargent. C. S. Manual of the Trees of N. America.
Two volumes, a comprehensive listing of N. American trees though a bit out of date now. Good details on habitats, some details on plant uses. Not really for the casual reader.
[113]Dirr. M. A. and Heuser. M. W. The Reference Manual of Woody Plant Propagation.
A very detailed book on propagating trees. Not for the casual reader.
[155]Arnberger. L. P. Flowers of the Southwest Mountains.
A lovely little pocket guide to wild plants in the southern Rockies of America.
[185]Mitchell. A. F. Conifers in the British Isles.
A bit out of date (first published in 1972), but an excellent guide to how well the various species of conifers grow in Britain giving locations of trees.
[200]Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.
[229]Elias. T. The Complete Trees of N. America. Field Guide and Natural History.
A very good concise guide. Gives habitats, good descriptions, maps showing distribution and a few of the uses. It also includes the many shrubs that occasionally reach tree proportions.
[257]Moerman. D. Native American Ethnobotany
Very comprehensive but terse guide to the native uses of plants. Excellent bibliography, fully referenced to each plant, giving a pathway to further information. Not for the casual reader.

Readers comment                                         
 
Elizabeth H.
Dianna Sat Oct 18 19:32:09 2003
To the Makers and Managers of Plants For A Future

I would like to thank you for having this site available. I have made a search for the American South West: PFAF DB Search Address:http://www.ibiblio.org/pfaf/cgi-bin/find_use?AREA=N.+America%28SW%29, and as you can see, it is full of 122 different kinds of plants to study. I appreciate your help in making my dreams come true. You see, I have always wanted to be able to live off of the land should things change, and with this study, I can not only live off the land but serve it as well, by making sure the seeds are there for the planting of useful plants in the future. I have spread the word about your site to interested people both online and within my own community. I hope you flourish in your endeavors. Please keep this online for the generations to come. Maybe someday, we will learn to appreciate what we truly have....a wonderful planet of symbiotic living.

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